Karnozin

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Karnozin[1]
IUPAC ime
Drugi nazivi β-Alanil-L-histidin
Identifikacija
CAS registarski broj 305-84-0 YesY
PubChem[2][3] 439224
ChemSpider[4] 388363 YesY
UNII 8HO6PVN24W YesY
KEGG[5] C00386
ChEBI 57485
ChEMBL[6] CHEMBL242948 YesY
Jmol-3D slike Slika 1
Slika 2
Svojstva
Molekulska formula C9H14N4O3
Molarna masa 226.23 g mol−1
Agregatno stanje Kristalna materija
Tačka topljenja

253 °C, 526 K, 487 °F (razlaže se)

 YesY (šta je ovo?)   (verifikuj)

Ukoliko nije drugačije napomenuto, podaci se odnose na standardno stanje (25 °C, 100 kPa) materijala

Infobox references

Karnozin (beta-alanil-L-histidin) je dipeptid sastavljen od dve aminokiseline: beta-alanina i histidina. U velikim koncentracijama ga ima u mišićima i moždanom tkivu.[7]

Karnozin i karnitin je otkrio ruski biohemičar Vladimir Sergejević Gulević. Istraživači u Britaniji, Južnoj Koreji, Rusiji i drugim zemljama su dokazali da karnozin ima brojne blagotvorne antioksidativne osobine. Dokazano je da karnozin izbacuje reaktivne vrste kiseonik a (ROS) kao i alfa-beta nezasićene aldehide, nastale peroksidacijom masnih kiselina ćelijskih membrana tokom oksidativnog stresa.

Karnozin može da se suprotstavi glikaciji, takođe je sposoban da helira dvovalentne jone metala. Pretpostavka je da hronična glikoliza ubrzava starenje. Otkriveno je da karnozin inhibira dijabetičnu nefropatiju štiteći podocite i mezangijalne ćelije.

Proizvodi koji sadrže karnozin se koriste i u preparatima za smanjivanje bora na koži.

Neka istraživanja su otkrila blagotvorne efekte N-acetilkarnozina u prevenciji i lečenju katarakte očiju; jedno istraživanje je otkrilo da karnozin smanjuje maglovitost sočiva oka pacova koji su bili izloženi gvanidinu radi izazivanja katarakte.[8] Međutim, iako pozitivni rezultati postoje, tvrdnje da karnozin izaziva ove i druge oftalmološke koristi su, za sada, nedovoljno podržane (od strane zvanične farmaceutske industrije) da bi bili odobreni od strane matičnih medicinskih zajednica.

Studija iz 2001. godine utvrdila je da karnozin poboljšava socijalizaciju i receptivni rečnik dece sa autizmom.[9] U životinjskim modelima, suplementirani karnozin može da poveća nivoe kortikosterona, koji može da objasni hiperaktivnost ispoljenu kod većih doza. Međutim, gore navedena studija koristila je karnozin ubrizgavan u piliće intracerebroventrikularno, dok kod ljudi još uvek nije primećen povećan nivo kortikosterona.

Kod životinjskih modela utvrđeno je da karnozin usporava rast raka i štiti od oksidativnog stresa izazvanog alkoholom, kao i hronična oštećenja jetre uzrokovana etanolom. Karnozin je takođe neuro zaštitnik protiv trajne cerebralne ishemije kod miševa.

Karnozin može da poveća Hejflik limit kod ljudskih fibroblasta, a čini se i da smanjuje stopu skraćivanja telomera. Karnozin se takođe smatra zaštitnikom protiv starenja.[10] Pošto se prefiks karno- odnosi na meso (izvor pomenut gore) za tipične vegetarijanske dijete se smatra da im nedostaje karnozina.

Kliničko ispitivanje profesora Vanga i dr. pod nazivom „Upotreba karnozina kao prirodnog leka protiv starenja ljudi“ sprovedena je na 96 pacijenata sa raznličitim stepenima katarakte, i pokazala je 80% uspešnosti kod uznapredovalih katarakti, i 100% kod pacijenata sa blagim do umerenim kataraktama, tokom 6 meseci probnog perioda.

Karnozinemija, ili nedostatak karnozina ili nedostatak aminoacil-histidin dipeptida, je redak autozomno- recesivan metabolički poremećaj, koji izaziva nedostatak karnozinaze, vrste dipeptidaze (enzima koji deli dipeptide u njihova dva aminokiselniska konstituenta). Ovaj poremećaj dovodi do povećanja karnozina u urinu, likvoru, krvi i nervnom sistemu. Neurološki poremećaji povezani sa nedostatkom karnozina, i rezultujućom karnozinemijom („karnozin u krvi”) su česti.

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ „C9625 L-Carnosine ~99%, crystalline“. Sigma-Aldrich. 
  2. ^ Li Q, Cheng T, Wang Y, Bryant SH (2010). „PubChem as a public resource for drug discovery.“. Drug Discov Today 15 (23-24): 1052-7. DOI:10.1016/j.drudis.2010.10.003. PMID 20970519.  edit
  3. ^ Evan E. Bolton, Yanli Wang, Paul A. Thiessen, Stephen H. Bryant (2008). „Chapter 12 PubChem: Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities“. Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry 4: 217-241. DOI:10.1016/S1574-1400(08)00012-1. 
  4. ^ Hettne KM, Williams AJ, van Mulligen EM, Kleinjans J, Tkachenko V, Kors JA. (2010). „Automatic vs. manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining“. J Cheminform 2 (1): 3. DOI:10.1186/1758-2946-2-3. PMID 20331846.  edit
  5. ^ Joanne Wixon, Douglas Kell (2000). „Website Review: The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes — KEGG“. Yeast 17 (1): 48–55. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(200004)17:1<48::AID-YEA2>3.0.CO;2-H. 
  6. ^ Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP. (2012). „ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery“. Nucleic Acids Res 40 (Database issue): D1100-7. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr777. PMID 21948594.  edit
  7. ^ „Karnozin EXTRA“. carnomed.rs/. 2013 Приступљено 4. 7. 2013.. 
  8. ^ „Katarakta i glaukom“. karnozin.rs Приступљено 4. 7. 2013.. 
  9. ^ „Poremećaji autističnog spektra“. karnozin.rs Приступљено 4. 7. 2013.. 
  10. ^ „Karnozin za dugovečnost“. karnozin.rs Приступљено 4. 7. 2013.. 

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