Turakovi — разлика између измена

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Верзија на датум 5. јул 2020. у 17:45

Turakovi i srodinici
Vremenski raspon:
Oligocene - Holocene, 24–0 Ma
Possible Early Eocene record
Guinea turaco (Tauraco persa) at Birds of Eden aviary, South Africa
Naučna klasifikacija e
Domen: Eukaryota
Carstvo: Animalia
Tip: Chordata
Klasa: Aves
Kladus: Otidimorphae
Red: Musophagiformes
Seebohm, 1890
Porodica: Musophagidae
Lesson, 1828
  • Apopempsidae Brodkorb, 1971b
  • Veflintornithidae Kašin, 1976

Turakovi sačinjavaju ptičiju familiju Musophagidae (doslovno „jedači banana”), koja obuhvata plantain-eaters and go-away-birds. In southern Africa both turacos and go-away-birds are commonly known as loeries. They are semi-zygodactylous – the fourth (outer) toe can be switched back and forth. The second and third toes, which always point forward, are conjoined in some species. Musophagids often have prominent crests and long tails; the turacos are noted for peculiar and unique pigments giving them their bright green and red feathers.

Traditionally, this group has been allied with the cuckoos in the order Cuculiformes, but the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy raises this group to a full order Musophagiformes. They have been proposed to link the hoatzin to the other living birds,[1] but this was later disputed.[2] Recent genetic analysis have strongly supported the order ranking of Musophagiformes.[3][4][5]

Musophagidae is one of very few bird families endemic to Africa,[6] one other being the mousebirds, Colliidae. All species are frugivorous, but they also eat leaves, buds, and flowers. Figs are an important part of their diet. They have rounded wings and long tails and strong legs, making them poor fliers, but good runners.[6]


Female white-bellied go-away-bird, Corythaixoides leucogaster

Most turacos are medium-sized birds – an exception being the large great blue turaco – with long tails and short, rounded wings. They range in length from 40 to 75 cm (16—30 in). Their flight is weak, but they are strong climbers and are able to move nimbly on branches and through vegetation. Juveniles have claws on the wings that help them climb.[7][8][9] They have a unique foot arrangement, where the fourth toe can be brought around to the back of the foot where it almost touches the first toe, or brought around so that it is near the second and third. In spite of this flexibility the toe is actually usually held at right angles to the axis of the foot.[10]

Evolucija i sistematika

Fosilni rod Veflintornis is known from the Middle Miocene of Grive-Saint-Alban (France). It was established as Apopempsis by Pierce Brodkorb in 1971, but this is preoccupied by Schenkling's 1903 use of the name for some beetles. "Apopempsis" africanus (Early Miocene of Kenya) might also belong there.[11]

Great blue turaco
Corythaeola cristata

The Early Eocene Promusophaga was initially believed to be the oldest record of the turacos; it was eventually reconsidered a distant relative of the ostrich and is now in the ratite family Lithornithidae. Filholornis from the Late Eocene or Early Oligocene of France is occasionally considered a musophagid, but its relationships have always been disputed. It is not often considered a turaco anymore in more recent times and has been synonymised with the presumed gruiform Talantatos, though it is not certain whether this will become widely accepted.[11]

The phylogenetic analysis conducted by Field & Hsiang (2018) indicated that Eocene (Wasatchian) species Foro panarium known from the Fossil Butte Member of the Green River Formation (Wyoming, United States) was a stem-turaco.[12]


The IOC World Bird List (version 10.1) recognises 23 species of turaco in six genera.[13] However, a phylogenetic analysis by Perktaş et al (2020) found genus Tauraco polyphyletic and a revised classification has been proposed based on molecular, morphological and biogeographic analysis.[14]. This study recognised 33 species-level taxa in seven genera corresponding to the major clades. The following phylogenetic tree is based on this proposal and uses their proposed genus and species names.[14]


Corythaeola cristata


Crinifer leucogaster


Crinifer piscator

Crinifer zonurus

‑{sensu stricto}‑

Crinifer personatus

Crinifer concolor

(krinifer sensu lato)[а]

Gallirex porphyreolophus

Gallirex chlorochlamys[б]

Gallirex kivuensis[б]

Gallirex johnstoni


Menelikornis ruspolii

Menelikornis leucotis

Menelikornis donaldsoni[б]


Musophaga macrorhynchus

Musophaga verreauxii[б]

Musophaga violacea

Musophaga rossae


Proturacus bannermani

Proturacus erythrolophus

Proturacus leucolophus


Tauraco emini[в]

Tauraco hartlaubi

Tauraco persa

Tauraco buffoni[б]

Tauraco fischeri

Tauraco reichenowi[г]

Tauraco corythaix

Tauraco livingstonii

Tauraco schuettii

Tauraco chalcolophus[д]

Tauraco schalowi

Tauraco marungensis[д]

Tauraco loitanus[д]

‑{sensu stricto}‑
‑{sensu lato}‑


  1. ^ Broader definition of Crinifer proposed, because Corythaixoides leucogaster is recovered with the Crinifer species rather than the other Corythaixoides species
  2. ^ а б в г д Proposed species split based on phylogenetic species principle.
  3. ^ Elevation of former subspecies to new species proposed because Tauraco schuettii was found to be polyphyletic.
  4. ^ Elevation of former subspecies to new species proposed because Tauraco livingstonii was found to be polyphyletic.
  5. ^ а б в Proposed species split of Tauraco schalowi complex into four species based on phylogenetic species principle.
  6. ^ Proposed recognition of genus Proturacus for a clade of Tauraco bannermani, Tauraco erythrolophus and Tauraco leucolophus.
  7. ^ Proposed genus for clade of former Taurico species
  8. ^ Proposed genus for clade of former Taurico and Ruwenzorornis species


  1. ^ Hughes & Baker (1999)
  2. ^ Sorenson et al. (2003)
  3. ^ Ericson, P.G.P.; et al. (2006). „Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils” (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543—547. PMC 1834003Слободан приступ. PMID 17148284. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. Архивирано из оригинала (PDF) 2008-03-07. г. 
  4. ^ Hackett, S.J.; et al. (2008). „A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History”. Science. 320 (5884): 1763—1768. PMID 18583609. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. 
  5. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). „Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds”. Science. 346 (6215): 1320—1331. PMC 4405904Слободан приступ. PMID 25504713. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. 
  6. ^ а б Holzman, Barbara A. (2008). Tropical forest biomes. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33840-3. OCLC 470649845. 
  7. ^ Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004). „Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds” (PDF). Evolution. 58 (11): 2558—2573. PMID 15612298. doi:10.1554/04-235. Приступљено 2016-07-08. 
  8. ^ „Violaceous Touraco” (PDF). rosamondgiffordzoo.org. 2010-03-01. Приступљено 2016-07-08. 
  9. ^ „TURACO TAG HUSBANDRY MANUAL” (PDF). aviansag.org. 1998-08-18. Приступљено 2016-07-08. 
  10. ^ Turner, Donald (1997), „Family Musophagidae (Turacos)”, Ур.: del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi, Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4, Sandgrouse to Cuckoos, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, стр. 480–508, ISBN 978-84-87334-22-1 
  11. ^ а б Mlíkovský (2002)
  12. ^ Daniel J. Field; Allison Y. Hsiang (2018). „A North American stem turaco, and the complex biogeographic history of modern birds”. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18 (1): 102. PMC 6016133Слободан приступ. PMID 29936914. doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1212-3. 
  13. ^ Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P. (ур.). „Family Musophagidae”. IOC World Bird List. 10.1. International Ornithological Congress. Приступљено 19. 6. 2020. 
  14. ^ а б в Perktaş, Utku; Groth, Jeff G.; Barrowclough, George F. (април 2020). „Phylogeography, Species Limits, Phylogeny, and Classification of the Turacos (Aves: Musophagidae) Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Sequences”. American Museum Novitates. 2020 (3949): 1—61. ISSN 0003-0082. doi:10.1206/3949.1. 


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