Алуминијум хлорохидрат — разлика између измена

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Алуминијум хлорохидрат
Идентификација
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.745
Својства
Al2Cl(OH)5
Моларна маса 174,45 g/mol
Опасности
R-ознаке R36 R37 R38 R41
Уколико није другачије напоменуто, подаци се односе на стандардно стање материјала (на 25°C [77°F], 100 kPa).
Референце инфокутије

Алуминијум хлорохидрат је група соли која има општу формулу AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. Користи се као дезодорант и антиперспирант, те као флокулант у прочишћавању воде.

In water purification, where it is usually called polyaluminium chloride, this compound is preferred in some cases because the pH value can be varied according to the exact values chosen for the subscripts n and m in the pattern formula. Although many variations are used, an especially important combination is Al12Cl12(OH)24. The actual pH correlates to the formula m/(3n).

Структура

Алумијиум хлорохидрат се најбоље може описати као неогрански полимер и као такавог га је тешко структурно окарактерисати. Но технике попут хроматографија са гел пермеацијом, рентген кристалографија и 27Al-NMR су употребљени у истраживањима од стране разних група, укључујући и истраживање научника Назара[1] and Laden[2] to show that the material is based on Al13 units with a Keggin ion structure and that this base unit then undergoes complex transformations to form larger poly-aluminium complexes.

Synthesis

Aluminium chlorohydrate can be commercially manufactured by reacting aluminium with hydrochloric acid. A number of aluminium-containing raw materials can be used, including aluminium metal, alumina trihydrate, aluminium chloride, aluminium sulfate and combinations of these. The products can contain by-product salts, such as sodium/calcium/magnesium chloride or sulfate.[3]

Because of the explosion hazard related to hydrogen produced by the reaction of aluminium metal with hydrochloric acid, the most common industrial practice is to prepare a solution of aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) by reacting aluminium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The ACH product is reacted with aluminium ingots at 100 °C using steam in an open mixing tank. The Al to ACH ratio and the time of reaction allowed determines the polymer form of the PAC n to m ratio.

Употреба и токсичност

Облик који се најчешће користи у дезодорансима и антиперспирансима је Al2Cl(OH)5. Алуминијум хлорохидрат је један од најчешжих активних састојака који се користи у комерцијалним антиперспиранс [4] , а често се користи и као флокулант у постојењима за прераду воде.

Alzheimer's disease

The association between exposure to aluminium and long-term use of antiperspirants and Alzheimer's disease is a trend toward a higher risk with increasing frequency of use.[5] The use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants is of importance concerning Alzheimer's disease.[6] The use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.[7]

Aluminium is often considered as a neurotoxic that alters the function of the blood-brain barrier,[8] and it is one of the few abundant elements that appears to have no beneficial function to cells (non-essential metal).[9]

Breast cancer

The International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine found no evidence that certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics increase the risk of breast cancer.[10] The European Journal of Cancer Prevention stated "underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer."[11] The journal The Breast Cancer Research proposed a link between breast cancer and the application of cosmetic chemicals in the underarm, including aluminium, with oestrogenic and/or genotoxic properties.[12] Personal care products are potential contributors to the body burden in aluminium and newer evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants.[9] As a consequence, many manufacturers of cosmetic products have started to ban aluminium salts in their products and use this as advertising argument for new more friendly product lines.

Use as flocculant in water purification

Aluminium chlorohydrate is also used as a flocculant in water treatment process to remove dissolved organic matter and colloidal particles present in suspension. Because the risk of overdosage in aluminium in potable water and the suspected associated risks for human health, the use of aluminium salts as flocculant to purify tap water is long criticised. Aluminium chlorohydrate is being replaced by ferric chloride filling the same role without toxicity.

Synonyms

  • Aluminium hydroxychloride
  • Aluminium chlorhydroxide
  • Aluminium chloride basic
  • Aluminium chlorohydrol
  • Polyaluminium chloride

See also

References

  1. ^ Rowsell J, Nazar LF (2000). „Speciation and Thermal Transformation in Alumina Sols: Structures of the Polyhydroxyoxoaluminum Cluster [Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26]18+ and Its δ-Keggin Moieté”. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 122 (15): 3777—8. doi:10.1021/ja993711. 
  2. ^ Laden, Karl; Felger, Carl B. (1988). Antiperspirants and deodorants. New York: M. Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-7893-4. [потребна страна]
  3. ^ American National Standards Institute (1993). AWWA standard for liquid poly aluminum chloride. Denver: American Water Works Association. OCLC 31849037. 
  4. ^ Lukacs VA, Korting HC (1989). „[Antiperspirants and deodorants—ingredients and evaluation]”. Dermatosen in Beruf Und Umwelt (на језику: German). 37 (2): 53—7. PMID 2656175. 
  5. ^ Graves AB, White E, Koepsell TD, Reifler BV, van Belle G, Larson EB (1990). „The association between aluminum-containing products and Alzheimer's disease”. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 43 (1): 35—44. PMID 2319278. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(90)90053-R. 
  6. ^ Belojević G, Jakovljević B (1998). „[Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease]”. Srpski Arhiv Za Celokupno Lekarstvo. 126 (7-8): 283—9. PMID 9863396. 
  7. ^ Exley C (1998). „Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?”. Molecular Medicine Today. 4 (3): 107—9. PMID 9575492. doi:10.1016/S1357-4310(98)01209-X.  Непознати параметар |month= игнорисан (помоћ)
  8. ^ Banks WA, Kastin AJ (1989). „Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at the blood-brain barrier”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 13 (1): 47—53. PMID 2671833. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(89)80051-X. 
  9. ^ а б Exley C., Charles L.M., Barr L., Martin C., Polwart A., Darbre P.D. (2007). „Aluminium in human breast tissue”. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 101 (9): 1344—6. PMID 17629949. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.06.005.  Непознати параметар |month= игнорисан (помоћ)
  10. ^ Gikas, PD; Mansfield, L; Mokbel, K (2004). „Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?”. Int. J. Fertil. Womens Med. 49 (5): 212—4. PMID 15633477. 
  11. ^ McGrath K.G. (2003). „An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving” (PDF). European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 12 (6): 479—85. PMID 14639125. doi:10.1097/00008469-200312000-00006.  Непознати параметар |month= игнорисан (помоћ)
  12. ^ Darbre P.D. (2009). „Underarm antiperspirants/deodorants and breast cancer”. Breast Cancer Research. 11 (Suppl. 3): S5. PMC 2797685Слободан приступ. PMID 20030880. doi:10.1186/bcr2424. 

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