Džesi Bernard

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Džesi Šerli Bernard
Datum rođenja (1903-06-08)8. jun 1903.
Mesto rođenja Mineapolis, Minesota
Sjedinjene Američke Države
Datum smrti 6. oktobar 1996.(1996-10-06) (93 god.)
Mesto smrti Vašington, Distrikt Kolumbija
Sjedinjene Američke Države
Škola Univerzitet u Minesoti, Univerzitet Vašington u Sent Luisu

Džesi Šerli Bernard (eng. Jessie Shirley Bernard), rođena kao Džesi Sara Ravič (eng. Jessie Sarah Ravitch, 8. jun 1903. — 6. oktobar 1996.) bila je američki sociolog i istaknuti učenjak feminizma.

Bernardova je bila stalna preteča feminističke misli u američkoj sociologiji i njen rad je okarakterisan kao izuzetno plodotvoran, protežući se na nekoliko intelektualnih i političkih oblasti.[1] Proučavala je i pisala o životu žena još od kasnih 1930-ih, a njeni doprinosi društvenim naukama te feminističkoj teoriji vezani za položaj žena, rod i rodne uloge, brak, odnose žena prema porodici i lokalnoj zajednici su naročito zapažene. Tokom svoje karijere dodeljena su joj brojna priznanja, a i nekoliko ustanovljenih nagrada nosi njeno ime, kao što je Nagrada Džesi Bernard Američkog sociološkog udruženja.[2][3]

Džesi Bernard je bila plodan pisac, objavivši 15 samostalnih knjiga, 9 knjiga u koautorstvu, 75 članaka u časopisima i preko 40 poglavlja u knjigama.[4][5]

Život i delo[uredi]

Džesi Bernard (rođena kao Džesi Ravič) rođena je 8. juna 1903. goidne u Mineapolisu. Prvi samostalan korak napravila je sa 17 godina kada je iz svoje jevrejske imigracione porodice prešla na Univerzitet u Minesoti. Tamo je studirala s Pitirimom Sorokinom, koji je kasnije osnovao Odeljenje za sociologiju na Harvardskom univerzitetu, i sa L.L. Bernardom, koji je bio jedan od saosnivača American sociological review, i za koga se udala 1925. godine.[6]

Njeno zajedničko studiranje sa Bernardom odvelo ju je do pozitivističke sociologije koja se očitovala u njenom kasnijem radu i sposobnosti da kvantitativno istraživanje integriše sa kvalitativnom i kritičkom analizom koje su u Americi postajale sve popularnije. Doktorirala je na Vašingtonskom univerzitetu u Sent Luisu 1935. godine. Do sredine 1940-ih godina, Bernardovi su bili na Državnom univerzitetu Pensilvanija, a Džesi je počela da prerasta pozitivizam. Holokaust je uništio njenu veru u to da nauka može da spozna i proizvede pravedan svet. Prihvatila je nove ideje od kojih je najvažnija bila ta da je znanje konceptualizovano, a ne objektivno. Uskoro je počela da uspostavlja nezavisnu akademsku reputaciju. Njen muž umro je 1951. godine, ali ona je ostala na Pen Stejtu sve do 1960. godine, provodeći vreme u predavanju i pisanju, kao i podizanju svoje dece. Nakon toga, preselila se u Vašington da bi se potpuno posvetila pisanju i istraživanju.[7]

Najdramatičniji korak preduzela je u poslednjoj trećini svog života, između 1964. i 1996. godine (te godine je i preminula). Taj period značajan je kako za njenu vanserijsku akademsku produkciju, tako i za ono što je ona imala da kaže o karijernim obrascima u životima žena.[7]

Izabrana bibliografija[uredi]

Knjige[uredi]

  • Bernard, Jessie. 1942. "American Family Behavior". New York: Harper & Brothers.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1949. "American Community Behavior". New York: Dryden Press
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1956. "Remarriage: A Study of Marriage". New York: Dryden Press.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1957. "Social Problems at Midcentury: Role, Status and Stress in a Context of Abundance". New York: Dryden Press,
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1964. "Academic Women". University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1966. "Marriage and Family Among Negroes". New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1968. "The Sex Game". New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1971. "Women and the Public Interest: An Essay on Policy and Protest". Chicago: Aldine.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1972. "The Future of Marriage". New York Bantam Books.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1973. "The Sociology of Community". Glenview Illinois: Scott, Foresman Publisher.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1975. "The Future of Motherhood". New York: Penguin Books.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1975. "Women, Wives, Mothers: Values and Options". Chicago: Aldine.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1978. "Self-Portrait of a Family". Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1981. "The Female World". New York: Free Press.
  • Bernard, Jessie. 1987. "The Female World from a Global Perspective". Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Koautor knjiga[uredi]

  • Luther, Lee Bernard and Bernard, Jessie. 1934. "Sociology and the Study of International Relations". St. Louis: Washington University Studies.
  • Bernard, Luther Lee and Bernard, Jessie. 1943. "Origins of American Sociology". New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
  • Bernard, Jessie, Smith, William M. and Buchanan, Helen E. 1958. "Dating, Mating, and Marriage". Cleveland, Ohio: Howard Allen, Inc.
  • Bernard, Jessie and MacLurg Jensen, Deborach. 1962. "Sociology". St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co.
  • Broderick, Calfred B. and Bernard, Jessie. 1969. "The Individual, Sex and Society". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.
  • Bernard, Jessie, Thompson, Lida F. and MacLurg Jensen, Deborah. 1970. "Sociology: Nurses and their Patients in a Modern Society". St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co.

Poglavlja u knjigama[uredi]

  • Bernard, Jessie. "The History and Prospects of Sociology in the United States." In Trends in American Sociology. edited by George A. Lundberg, Read Bain, and Nels Anderson. New York: Harper and Bros., 1929.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Sources and Methods of Social Psychology." The Fields and Methods of Sociology, ed. Luther L. Bernard. New York: R. Long and R.R. Smith, Inc., 1934.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Biculturality: A Study in Social Schizophrenia". In Jews in a Gentile World, eds. Isacque Graeber and Steuart H. Britt. New York: Macmillan, 1942.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "An Analysis of Jewish Culture." In Jews in a Gentile World, eds. Isacque Graeber and Steuart H. Britt. New York: Macmillan, 1942
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Social Work." In Contemporary Social Science, eds. Philip L. Harriman. Harrisburg: Stackpole Co., 1953.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Sociological Study of Conflict." In The Nature of Conflict ed. International Sociological Association. Belgium: UNESCO, 1957.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The United States." In The Institutions of Advanced Societies, ed. Arnold M. Rose. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Divorce and Remarriage." In Sex Ways in Fact and Faith, eds. Evelyn and Sylvanus Duvall. New York: Association Press, 1961.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Adjustments of Married Mates." In Handbook of Marriage and the Family, ed. Harold T. Christensen. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1964.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Present Situation in the Academic World of Women Trained in Engineering." In Women in the Scientific Professions, ed. Jacquelyn A.Mattfeld. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Conflict as Research and Research as Conflict." In The Rise and Fall of Project Camelot, ed. Irving L. Horowitz. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1967.
  • Bernard, Jessie. Present Demographic Trends and Structural Outcomes in Family Life Today." In Marriage and Family Counseling, ed. James A. Peterson. New York: Association Press, 1968.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Eudaemonists." In Why Men Take Chances ed. Samuel Z. Klausner. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1968.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Counseling, Psychotherapy and Social Problems in Value Contexts." In Explorations in Sociology and Counseling, ed. Donald A. Hansen. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1969.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Functions and Limitations in Counseling and Psychotherapy." In Explorations in Sociology and Counseling, ed. Donald A. Hansen. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1969.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Infidelity: Some Moral and Social Issues." In The Dynamics of Work and Marriage, ed. Jules H. Masserman. New York: Grune and Straton, 1970.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "No News, but New Ideas." In Divorce and After, ed. Paul Bohannan. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1970.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Paradox of a Happy Marriage." In Women in Sexist Society, eds. Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran. New York: Basic Books, 1971.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Sex as a Regenerative Force." In The New Sexuality, ed. Herbert A. Otto Palo Alto. California: Science and Behavior Books, 1971.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Housewife: Between Two Worlds." In Work, eds. Phyllis Stewart and Muriel Canter. Chicago: Markham, 1972.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Women, Marriage, and the Future." In Toward a Sociology of Women, ed. Constantina Safilios-Rothschild. Lexington: Xerox College Pub., 1972.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Adolescence and Socialization for Motherhood." In Adolescence in the Life Cycle, Psychological Change and Social Context, ed. Sidney E. Dragastin and Glen H. Elder, Jr. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1975.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Jealousy and Marriage." in Jealousy, eds. Gordon Clanton and Lynn G. Smith. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "'Contingency' or 'Career' Schedules for Women." In Increasing Student Development Options in College, ed. David E. Drew. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Models for the Relationship between the World of Women and the World of Men." In Research in Social Movements, ed. Louis Kriesberg. Greenwich: JAI Publishing, 1978.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Policy and Women's Time." In Sex Roles and Social Policy, eds. Jean Lipman-Blumen and Jessie Bernard. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications 1979.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Update on Women." In The Future American College, ed. Arthur W. Chicering. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1980.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "The Housewife." In Varieties of Work, ed. Phyllis Stewart and Muriel Cantor. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Benchmark for the '80s." In Handbook for Women Scholars, ed. Monika Kehoe. San Francisco: Center for Women Scholars, 1983.
  • Bernard, Jessie. "Reflections on Style, Structure, and Subject." In Scholarly Writing and Publishing, ed. Mary Frank Fox. Colorado: Westview, 1985.

Izvori[uredi]

  1. Myers, Kristen A., Anderson, Cynthia D. & Risman, Barbara J. "Feminist Foundations: Toward Transforming Sociology". SAGE Publishers, 1998. pp. 78
  2. Lengermann, PM and Niebrugge, J. "Contemporary Feminist Theory" in Sociological Theory by George Ritzer (ed). 1996. pp. 452-3
  3. American Sociological Association. "Jessie Bernard Award". [1]. Pristupljeno 3. novembra 2014.
  4. Love (2006). str. 40.
  5. Swarthmore College. "Jessie S. Bernard". [2]. Pristupljeno 3. novembar 2014.
  6. Ricer (2012). str. 305-306.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Ricer (2012). str. 306.

Literatura[uredi]

  • Love, Barbara J. (2006). Feminists Who Changed America: 1963–1975. University of Illinois Press. str. 40. 
  • Ricer, Džordž (2012). Savremena sociološka teorija i njeni klasični koreni. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.