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Свемирски центар Кенеди — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|свемирска лансирна локација Сједињених Држава на Флориди}}{{рут}}
{{Infobox organization
| name = Свемирски центар Џон Ф. Кенеди
| image = {{multiple image
| border = infobox
| total_width = 310
| image_style = border:1;
| perrow = 1/2/2/1
| image1 = VAB and SLS.jpg
| image2 = NASA’s SLS and SpaceX’s Falcon 9 at Launch Complex 39A & 39B (KSC-20220406-PH-JBP01-0001).jpg
| image3 = Lunar planetary landscape and runway at KSC built to test Morpheus lander.jpg
| image4 = KSC new HQ building.jpg
| image5 = Artemis I - First Joint Launch Countdown Simulation (cropped).jpg
| image6 = Aerial view of most of the KSC visitor complex.jpg
| caption = Clockwise from the top: [[Vehicle Assembly Building]], [[Shuttle Landing Facility]], [[Launch Control Center]], [[Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex|Visitor Complex]], [[KSC Headquarters Building]] and [[Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39|Launch Complex 39]]
| logo = Kennedy Space Center Logo.svg
| logo_size = 100px
| map = Merritt Island.jpg
| map_size = 160px
| map_caption = KSC shown in white; [[Cape Canaveral Space Force Station|CCSFS]] in green
| abbreviation = KSC
| named_after = [[John F. Kennedy]]
| formation = {{Start date and age|1962|07|01}}
| type = [[NASA facilities|NASA facility]]
| location = [[Merritt Island, Florida|Merritt Island]], [[Florida]]
| coordinates = {{coord|28|31|27|N|80|39|03|W|type:landmark|display=inline,title}}
| language = [[English language|English]]
| owner = [[NASA]]
| leader_title = Director
| leader_name = [[Janet Petro|Janet E. Petro]]<ref>[https://www.orlandosentinel.com/space/os-bz-kennedy-space-center-new-director-20210630-nqpxqwa4zff5bahkoec4m6cx5m-story.html Kennedy Space Center gets first woman director, Janet Petro, after Bob Cabana promoted to NASA.]</ref>
| budget = {{USD|2,218}} million<ref name="2021_KSC_Report">{{cite book |title = 2021 Kennedy Space Center Annual Report |year = 2021 |publisher = NASA |pages = 50, 48 |url = https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/fy21_annual_report_508.pdf |access-date = 3 February 2022 }}</ref>{{update after|2022}} (2021)
| staff = 10,733<ref name="2021_KSC_Report" />{{NoteTag|Number includes commercial tenants.}}{{update after|2022}} (2021)
| website = {{URL|http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/home/index.html}}
| formerly = Launch Operations Center
| footnotes = <ref>{{cite web |title = Kennedy Business Report |url = http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/pdf/534076main_annrpt10.pdf |work = Annual Report FY2010 |publisher = NASA |access-date = August 22, 2011 |date = February 2011 }}</ref>
[[Датотека:STS-36_Rollout_-_GPN-2000-000680.jpg|мини|300п|Део лансирне рампе 39А, део комплекса свемирског центра Џон Ф. Кенеди]]
'''Свемирски центар Џон Ф. Кенеди''' ({{јез-ен|John F. Kennedy Space Center}}) је простор и постројење које се налази у близини [[рт Канаверал|рта Канаверал]] на [[Флорида|Флориди]] у [[Сједињене Америчке Државе|САД]], које је од стране [[НАСА]] намењено лансирању [[свемир]]ских летелица и за друге сврхе усмерене остваривању [[свемир]]ских програма [[Сједињене Америчке Државе|САД]].<ref>{{cite web |title = Kennedy Space Center Implementing NASA's Strategies |url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codez/plans/KSCImp00.pdf |publisher = NASA |access-date = November 5, 2015 |year = 2000 }}</ref> Покрива подручје од око 219 квадратних [[миља]]. На подручју [[свемир]]ског центра запослено је око 17.000 људи. Центар је осим као лансирно постројење познат и као врло посећено [[Туризам|туристичко]] одредиште.
Свој назив центар је добио у новембру [[1963]]. године али су свемирска истраживања на њему започела још у октобру [[1957.]] године; слањем у [[свемир]] ракете Атлас. Почетак своје славе широм света центар је доживио почетком остваривања [[пројекат Аполо|програма Аполо]], а са њега је од тада остварено много успешних свемирских пројеката [[Сједињене Америчке Државе|САД]].
Though the first Apollo flights and all [[Project Mercury]] and [[Project Gemini]] flights took off from the then-Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launches were managed by KSC and its previous organization, the Launch Operations Directorate.<ref>{{cite web |title = Appendix 10 – Government Organizations Supporting Project Mercury |url = https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4001/app10.htm |website = NASA History Program Office |publisher = NASA |access-date = November 6, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title = 2. Project Support from the NASA Centers |url = https://history.nasa.gov/SP-45/ch2.htm |website = Mercury Project Summary (NASA SP-45) |publisher = NASA |access-date = November 6, 2015 }}</ref> Starting with the fourth Gemini mission, the NASA launch control center in Florida ([[Mercury Control Center]], later the [[Launch Control Center]]) began handing off control of the vehicle to the [[Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center|Mission Control Center]] in [[Houston]], shortly after liftoff; in prior missions it held control throughout the entire mission.<ref>{{cite web|title=Mercury Mission Control|url=http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/MCCgallery/|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 6, 2015}}</ref><ref name="Lipartito">{{cite book|last1=Lipartito|first1=Kenneth|last2=Butler|first2=Orville|title='A History of the Kennedy Space Center|date=2007|publisher=University Press of Florida|isbn=978-0-8130-3069-2|url=https://archive.org/details/historyofkennedy00lipa}}</ref>
Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial crew missions and researches food production and [[In-Situ Resource Utilization]] for off-Earth exploration.<ref name="Research & Tech">{{cite web|title=Research & Technology|url=https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/exploration/researchtech/index.html|website=Kennedy Space Center|date=March 3, 2015|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 5, 2015}}</ref> Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user [[spaceport]] through industry partnerships,<ref>{{cite web|title=NASA Partnerships Launch Multi-User Spaceport|url=https://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-partnerships-launch-multi-user-spaceport|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 5, 2015|date=May 1, 2014}}</ref> even adding a new launch pad ([[Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39#Launch Pad 39C|LC-39C]]) in 2015.
There are about 700 facilities and buildings grouped across the center's {{Convert|144,000|acre|km2}}.<ref name="Master Plan 2012">{{cite web|title=Kennedy Creating New Master Plan|url=http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/news/kscmasterplanrevision.html|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 5, 2015|date=March 12, 2012}}</ref> Among the unique facilities at KSC are the {{convert|525|ft|adj=on}} tall [[Vehicle Assembly Building]] for stacking NASA's largest rockets, the [[Launch Control Center]], which conducts space launches at KSC, the [[Operations and Checkout Building]], which houses the astronauts dormitories and suit-up area, a [[Space Station Processing Facility|Space Station factory]], and a {{Convert|3|mi|adj=on}} long [[Shuttle Landing Facility]]. There is also a [[Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex|Visitor Complex]] open to the public on site.
== Формирање ==
The military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become [[Cape Canaveral Space Force Station]]. In December 1959, the [[United States Department of Defense|Department of Defense]] transferred 5,000 personnel and the Missile Firing Laboratory to [[NASA]] to become the Launch Operations Directorate under NASA's [[Marshall Space Flight Center]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/story/ch1.html|title=Kennedy Space Center Story|publisher=NASA|access-date=May 13, 2019}}</ref>
President [[John F. Kennedy]]'s 1961 goal of a crewed lunar landing by 1970 required an expansion of launch operations. On July 1, 1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the '''Launch Operations Center (LOC).''' Also, Cape Canaveral was inadequate to host the new launch facility design required for the mammoth {{convert|363|ft|m|adj=on}} tall, {{convert|7500000|lbf|kN|adj=on}} thrust [[Saturn V]] rocket, which would be assembled vertically in a large hangar and transported on a mobile platform to one of several launch pads. Therefore, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on [[Merritt Island]].<ref>{{cite web |title = History of Cape Canaveral Chapter 3 {{!}} Spaceline |url = https://www.spaceline.org/history-cape-canaveral/history-cape-canaveral-chapter-3/ |access-date=2021-05-27 |language=en-US }}</ref>
NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to {{convert|131|sqmi}} and negotiating with the state of Florida for an additional {{convert|87|sqmi}}.<ref name="MOONPORT5-11">{{cite web |url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4204/ch5-11.html |title = Land, Lots of Land – Much of It Marshy |work = Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations |author1 = Charles D. Benson |author2 = William Barnaby Faherty |publisher=NASA |access-date=August 27, 2009}}</ref> The major buildings in KSC's Industrial Area were designed by architect [[Charles Luckman]].<ref>{{cite news |last=Muschamp|first=Herbert|title=Charles Luckman, Architect Who Designed Penn Station's Replacement, Dies at 89|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1999/01/28/arts/charles-luckman-architect-who-designed-penn-station-s-replacement-dies-at-89.html|access-date=August 22, 2011|newspaper=The New York Times|date=January 28, 1999}}</ref> Construction began in November 1962, and Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, and again just a week before [[Assassination of John F. Kennedy|his assassination]] on November 22, 1963.<ref name="KSC History Quiz">{{cite web|title=Kennedy History Quiz|url=http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/quiz_page_prt.htm#4|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 5, 2015}}</ref>
On November 29, 1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under [[s:Executive Order 11129|Executive Order 11129]].<ref>{{cite web| title = The National Archives, Lyndon B. Johnson Executive Order 11129 | url = https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/1963-johnson.html | access-date =April 26, 2010 }}</ref><ref name="KSC Story">{{cite web|title=Kennedy Space Center Story|url=http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/story/kscstory.html|publisher=NASA|access-date=November 5, 2015|date=1991}}</ref> Johnson's order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station ("the facilities of Station No. 1 of the Atlantic Missile Range") under the designation "John F. Kennedy Space Center", spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind. NASA Administrator [[James E. Webb]] clarified this by issuing a directive stating the ''Kennedy Space Center'' name applied only to the LOC, while the Air Force issued a general order renaming the military launch site ''Cape Kennedy Air Force Station''.<ref name="Moonport_appendixb">{{cite book
| last1 = Benson
| first1 = Charles D.
| last2 = Faherty
| first2 = William B.
| title = Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations
| publisher = NASA
| series = History Series
| volume = SP-4204
| date = August 1977
| url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4204/contents.html
| chapter = Chapter 7: The Launch Directorate Becomes an Operational Center – Kennedy's Last Visit
| chapter-url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4204/ch7-7.html
* | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/2009121709293020041106133417/http://www.kschq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4204/ch7-7.html
| archive-date = November 6, 2004
== Референце ==
== Литература ==
* {{cite book |last1 = Benson |first1 = Charles W. |last2 = Faherty |first2 = William Barnaby |title = Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations |url = https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4204/contents.html |publisher = Scientific and Technical Information Office, [[NASA]] |year = 1978 |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20041117050424/https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4204/contents.html |archive-date = November 17, 2004 }}.
* Middleton, Sallie. "Space Rush: Local Impact of Federal Aerospace Programs on Brevard and Surrounding Counties," ''Florida Historical Quarterly,'' Fall 2008, Vol. 87 Issue 2, pp.&nbsp;258–289.
* {{cite book |last=Reynolds |first=David West |title = Kennedy Space Center: Gateway to Space |url = https://archive.org/details/kennedyspacecent00reyn |access-date = January 30, 2010 |date = September 2006 |publisher = Firefly Books |location = Buffalo, NY |isbn = 978-1-55407-039-8 }}
* {{cite book|title=Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists|date=February 1973|page=39}}
* {{cite journal | title=Shuttle programme lifetime cost | date=April 7, 2011 | last=Pielke Jr. | first=Roger | author2=Radford Byerly | bibcode=2011Natur.472...38P | journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]] | volume=472 | issue=7341 | doi=10.1038/472038d | pages=38 | pmid=21475182| doi-access=free }}
* {{cite book |last1=Weinrich |first1=Heinz |title=Management: A Global, Innovative, and Entrepreneurial Perspective |date=2013 |page= }}
* {{cite book |last1=Klikauer |first1=Thomas |title=Management Education: Fragments of an Emancipatory Theory |date=2016 |page= }}
* {{cite book |last1=Keuper |first1=Franz |title=Finance Bundling and Finance Transformation: Shared Services Next Level |date=2013 |page= }}
* {{cite book |last= Jenkins |first= Dennis R. |title= Space Shuttle: Developing an Icon − 1972–2013|isbn=978-1-58007-249-6 |publisher= Specialty Press |date= 2016}}
* [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/technology/sts-newsref/stsref-toc.html Shuttle Reference manual]
* [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/resources/orbiters/orbiters.html Orbiter Vehicles]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20031224182455/http://www.house.gov/science/hot/columbia/rs21411.pdf Shuttle Program Funding 1992 – 2002]
* [https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19810022734_1981022734.pdf NASA Space Shuttle News Reference – 1981 (PDF document)]
* R. A. Pielke, [http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/admin/publication_files/resource-100-1993.01.pdf "Space Shuttle Value open to Interpretation"], ''Aviation Week'', issue 26. July 1993, p.&nbsp;57 (.pdf)
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commonscat|Kennedy Space Center}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/2017062103453420041213173505/http://spacemuseumwww.orgnasa.gov/centers/kennedy/home/ Kennedy Space Center Web site]
* [http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/index.html Kennedy History Vault]
* http://www.titusville.org/
* [http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/spaceport-magazine.html Spaceport News] KSC Employee Magazine
* https://web.archive.org/web/20091217092930/http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/
* [http://www.kennedyspacecenter.com/ KSC Visitor Complex Web site]
* [http://www.radioreference.com/apps/audio/?ctid=320 Streaming audio of KSC radio communications]
* [http://www.amfcse.org/ Astronauts Memorial Foundation Web site]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/101space/101space.htm "America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier", a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/aviation/ "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms", a National Park Service ''Discover Our Shared Heritage'' travel itinerary]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20100312044757/http://web.mac.com/jimgerard/AFGAS/pages/aaindex/home1.html A Field Guide to American Spacecraft]
* Documentary of the [https://richesmi.cah.ucf.edu/omeka2/items/show/2458 U.S. Space Program] in Florida
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