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Макакији — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|Род мајмуна старог света}}{{рут}}
{{automatic taxobox
| image = Monkey eating.jpg
| name = Макакији<ref name=msw3>{{MSW3 Groves|pages=161–165|id=12100528}}</ref>
| image_caption =
| image = Bonnet_macaque_(Macaca_radiata)_Photograph_By_Shantanu_Kuveskar.jpg
| image_caption = -{[[Bonnet macaque]]}- у [[Manegaon, Maharashtra|Манегаон]] у Махараштри, [[Индија]]
| taxon = Macaca
| authority = [[БернарBernard ЖерменGermain деde ЛасепедLacépède|Lacépède]], 1799
| type_species = ''[[Barbary macaque|Macaca sylvanus]]''
| type_species_authority = [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], [[12th edition of Systema Naturae|1766]]
| subdivision_ranks = [[Врста (биологија)|Врсте]]
| subdivision = ВидиПогледајте одељак [[#Врсте|Врсте]]текст
'''Макакији''' (''-{Macaca}-'')<ref name="Oxford">{{cite Lexico|macaque}}</ref> су [[Род (биологија)|род]] [[Мајмуни Старог света|мајмуна Старог света]]. Они сачињавају [[genus|род]] '''''Macaca''''' of [[sociality|gregarious]] [[Old World monkey]]s of the subfamily [[Cercopithecinae]]. The 23 species of macaques inhabit [[species distribution|ranges]] throughout [[Asia]], [[North Africa]], and (in [[barbary macaques in Gibraltar|one instance]]) [[Gibraltar]]. Macaques are principally [[frugivore|frugivorous]] (preferring fruit), although their diet also includes seeds, leaves, flowers, and tree bark. Some species, such as the [[crab-eating macaque]], subsist on a diet of invertebrates and occasionally small vertebrates. On average, [[southern pig-tailed macaque]]s in [[Malaysia]] eat about 70 large rats each per year.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://nypost.com/2019/10/22/rat-eating-monkeys-in-malaysia-stun-scientists/ |title=Rat-eating monkeys in Malaysia stun scientists |first=Sean |last=Keach |newspaper=[[The Sun (United Kingdom)|The Sun]] |date=October 22, 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://edition.cnn.com/2019/10/22/asia/macaques-rats-palm-oil-scli-intl-scn/index.html |title=Rat-eating macaques could boost palm oil sustainability in Malaysia |first=Jack |last=Guy |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=October 22, 2019}}</ref> All macaque [[social group]]s are [[matriarchy|matriarchal]], arranged around dominant females.<ref name="Fleagle2013">{{cite book |first=John G. |last=Fleagle |title=Primate Adaptation and Evolution |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=--PNXm0q2O8C&pg=PA123 |publisher=Academic |page=123 |date=8 March 2013 |isbn=978-0-12-378633-3}}</ref>
'''Макакији''' (''-{Macaca}-'') су [[Род (биологија)|род]] [[Мајмуни Старог света|мајмуна Старог света]].
== Распрострањеност ==
Све осим једне врсте живе у [[Азија|Азији]]. [[Ареал]] [[Берберски макаки|берберског макакија]] је у северозападној [[Африка|Африци]] ([[Атлас (планине)|Атлас планине]]) и на [[Гибралтар]]у у [[Европа|Европи]]. Азијске врсте претежно насељавају југ и југоисток континента. Најсевернији је [[јапански макаки]]. Велики број врста живи само на острву [[Сулавеси|Целебес]].
The ecological and geographic ranges of the macaque are the widest of any non-human primate. Their habitats include the tropical rainforests of [[Southeast Asia]], Sri Lanka, India, arid mountains of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and temperate mountains in Japan, [[northern and southern China|northern China]], Morocco, and Nepal. Some species also inhabit villages and towns in cities in Asia.<ref name=":1">{{Cite web |url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/4035/macaques.html |title=Macaques |website=science.jrank.org |language=en |access-date=2018-07-02}}</ref>
== Опис ==
Крупнији су и имају изушенија [[Лице|лица]] од [[гвенон]]а, али су мањи и имају краћа [[Лице|лица]] од [[павијан]]а.<ref name="Mihalj" />
== Екологија и понашање ==
=== Исхрана ===
Macaques are mainly [[vegetarian]], although some species have been observed feeding on insects. In natural habitats, they have been observed to consume certain parts of over one hundred species of plants including the buds, fruit, young leaves, bark, roots, and flowers. When macaques [[synanthrope|live amongst people]], they raid agricultural [[crop]]s such as wheat, rice, or [[sugarcane]]; and garden crops like tomatoes, bananas, melons, mangos, or [[papaya]]s.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/long-tailed_macaque/cons |title=Primate Factsheets: Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Conservation |website=pin.primate.wisc.edu |language=en |access-date=2018-07-02}}</ref> In human settings, they also [[begging in animals|rely heavily]] on direct handouts from people. This includes peanuts, rice, [[legume]]s, or even prepared food.
===Group structure===
Macaques live in established social groups that can range from a few individuals to several hundred, as they are social animals. A typical social group possess between 20 and 50 individuals of all ages and of both sexes. The typical composition consists of 15% adult males, 35% adult females, 20% infants, and 30% juveniles, though there exists variation in structure and size of groups across populations.<ref name=":1" />
[[File:Macaque monkey's premotor areas.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The [[premotor cortex]] of macaques is widely studied.<ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Boussaoud |first1=D. |last2=Tanné-Gariépy |first2=J. |last3=Wannier |first3=T. |last4=Rouiller |first4=E. M. |title=Callosal connections of dorsal versus ventral premotor areas in the macaque monkey: A multiple retrograde tracing study |journal=BMC Neuroscience |volume=6 |page=67 |doi=10.1186/1471-2202-6-67 |year=2005 |pmid=16309550 |pmc=1314896}}</ref>]]
Macaques have a very intricate social structure and hierarchy. If a macaque of a lower level in the social chain has eaten berries and none are left for a higher-ranking macaque, then the one higher in status can, within this social organization, remove the berries from the other monkey's mouth.<ref>{{cite video |title=The Life of Mammals |host=[[David Attenborough]] |year=2003 |publisher=[[2 Entertain#BBC Video|BBC Video]]}}</ref>
===Reproduction and mortality===
The reproductive potential of each species differs. Populations of the rhesus macaque can grow at rates of 10% to 15% per year if the environmental conditions are favorable. However, some forest-dwelling species are [[endangered species|endangered]] with much lower reproductive rates.<ref name=":1" /> After one year of age, macaques move from being dependent on their mother during infancy, to the juvenile stage, where they begin to associate more with other juveniles through rough tumble and playing activities. They sexually mature between three and five years of age. Females will usually stay with the social group in which they were born; however, young adult males tend to disperse and attempt to enter other social groups. Not all males succeed in joining other groups and may become solitary, attempting to join other social groups for many years.<ref name=":1" /> Macaques have a typical lifespan of 20 to 30 years.
===As invasive species===
[[File:Monkey Kai Bae.jpg|thumb|250п|''M. fascicularis'' on a [[Scooter (motorcycle)|scooter]] at [[Ko Chang]], Thailand]]
Certain species under the genus ''Macaca'' have become [[invasive species|invasive]] in certain parts of the world, while others that survive in forest habitats remain [[threatened species|threatened]]. The [[crab-eating macaque|long-tailed macaque]] (''M. fascicularis'') is listed as a threat and invasive alien species in [[Mauritius]], along with the [[rhesus macaque]]s (''M. mulatta'') in Florida.<ref name=":2">{{Cite news |url=http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/wecdept/2016/12/20/mapping-macaques-studying-floridas-non-native-primates/ |title=Mapping Macaques: Studying Florida's Non-Native Primates |publisher=UF/IFAS Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department |date=2016-12-20 |access-date=2018-07-02 |language=en-US}}</ref>
The long-tailed macaque causes severe damage to parts of its range where it has been [[introduced species|introduced]] because the populations grow unchecked due to a lack of predators.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/long-tailed_macaque/cons |title=Primate Factsheets: Long-tailed macaque (''Macaca fascicularis'') Conservation |website=pin.primate.wisc.edu |language=en |access-date=2018-07-02}}</ref> On the island Mauritius, they have created serious conservation concerns for other [[endemism|endemic species]]. They consume seeds of native plants and aid in the spread of exotic weeds throughout the forests. This changes the composition of the habitats and allows them to be rapidly overrun by invasive plants.
Long-tailed macaques are also responsible for the near extinction of several bird species on Mauritius by destroying the nests of the birds as they move through their native ranges and eat the eggs of [[critically endangered]] species, such as the [[pink pigeon]] and Mauritian green parrot.<ref name="www.upane.it">{{Cite web |url=http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=139 |title=GISD |publisher=Upane |website=iucngisd.org |access-date=2018-07-02}}</ref> They can be serious agricultural pests because they raid crops and gardens and humans often shoot the monkeys which can eliminate entire local populations.
In Florida, a group of rhesus macaques inhabit [[Silver Springs State Park]]. Humans often feed them, which may alter their movement and keep them close to the river on weekends where high human traffic is present.<ref name=":2" /> The monkeys can become aggressive toward humans, and also carry potentially fatal human diseases, including the [[herpes B virus]].<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Ostrowski |first=Stephanie |date=March 1998 |title=B-virus from Pet Macaque Monkeys: An Emerging Threat in the United States? |journal=Emerging Infectious Diseases |language=en-us |volume=4 |issue=1 |pages=117–21 |doi=10.3201/eid0401.980117 |pmid=9452406 |pmc=2627675 |issn=1080-6040}}</ref>
== Однос са људима ==
Several species of macaque are used extensively in [[animal testing]], particularly in the [[neuroscience]] of [[visual perception]] and the [[visual system]].
Nearly all (73–100%) pet and captive rhesus macaques are [[Asymptomatic carrier|carriers]] of the [[herpes B virus]]. This [[virus]] is harmless to macaques, but infections of humans, while rare, are potentially fatal, a risk that makes macaques unsuitable as pets.<ref>{{cite journal
| title = B-virus from Pet Macaque Monkeys: an Emerging Threat in the United States?
| first = Stephanie R. | last = Ostrowski | journal = Emerging Infectious Diseases | volume = 4 | issue = 1
| publisher = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
| doi = 10.3201/eid0401.980117 | pages=117–121
|display-authors=etal | pmid=9452406 | pmc=2627675| year = 1998
Urban performing macaques also carried [[simian foamy virus]], suggesting they could be involved in the [[zoonosis|species-to-species jump]] of similar retroviruses to humans.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.utoronto.ca/news/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060322150850/http://www.news.utoronto.ca/bin6/051208-1906.asp|url-status=dead|title=News &#124; University of Toronto|archive-date=Mar 22, 2006|website=www.utoronto.ca|access-date=May 30, 2020}}</ref>
=== Контрола популације ===
Management techniques have historically been controversial, and public disapproval can hinder control efforts. Previously, efforts to remove macaque individuals were met with public resistance.<ref name=":2" /> One management strategy that is currently being explored is that of [[Neutering|sterilization]]. Natural resource managers are being educated by scientific studies in the proposed strategy. Effectiveness of this strategy is estimated to succeed in keeping populations in check. For example, if 80% of females are sterilized every five years, or 50% every two years, it could effectively reduce the population.<ref name=":2" /> Other control strategies include planting specific trees to provide protection to native birds from macaque predation, live trapping, and the vaccine [[porcine zona pellucida]] (PZP), which causes infertility in females.<ref name="www.upane.it"/>
=== Клонирање ===
{{See also|Списак животиња које су клониране}}
In January 2018, scientists in China reported in the journal ''[[Cell (journal)|Cell]]'' the first creation of two [[crab-eating macaque]] [[cloning|clones]], named [[Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua]], using [[somatic cell nuclear transfer]] – the same method that produced [[Dolly (sheep)|Dolly the sheep]].<ref name="CELL-20180124">{{cite journal |author=Liu, Zhen|display-authors=etal|title=Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer |date=24 January 2018 |journal=[[Cell (journal)|Cell]] |volume=172|issue=4|pages=881–887.e7|doi=10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 |pmid=29395327|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name="SCI-20180124">{{cite journal |last=Normile |first=Dennis |title=These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly |url=http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/01/these-monkey-twins-are-first-primate-clones-made-method-developed-dolly |date=24 January 2018 |journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]] |doi=10.1126/science.aat1066 |access-date=24 January 2018 }}</ref><ref name="BBC-20180124">{{cite news |last=Briggs |first=Helen |title=First monkey clones created in Chinese laboratory |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/health-42809445 |date=24 January 2018 |work=[[BBC News]] |access-date=24 January 2018 }}</ref><ref name="NYT-20180124">{{cite news |agency=Associated Press |title=Scientists Successfully Clone Monkeys; Are Humans Up Next? |url=https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2018/01/24/science/ap-us-sci-cloned-monkeys.html |date=24 January 2018 |work=[[The New York Times]] |access-date=24 January 2018 }}</ref>
== Врсте ==
== Галерија ==
<gallery widths="250px" heights="180px">
Датотека:Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano Japan 001.jpg
Датотека:Gibraltar Barbary Macaque.jpg
* [[Хордати]]
=== ФуснотеРеференце ===
=== Литература ===
* „Велика енциклопедија животиња” Михаљ Микеш. {{page|year=2001|isbn=978-86-489-0303-7|pages=}}
== Спољашње везе ==
{{CommonscatCommons category|Macaca}}
* [https://archive.today/20121220234546/http://brainmaps.org/index.php?p=speciesdata&species=macaca-mulatta Macaque Monkey Brain Atlas]
* [http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/links/macaca Primate Info Net ''Macaca'' Factsheets]
* [https://www.britannica.com/animal/macaque Макаки — britannica.com]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20180216041705/http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Macaque Макаки — bbc.co.uk]
{{нормативна контрола}}