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C. J. Voker — разлика између измена

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{{short description|Afroamerički preduzetnik, filantrop i aktivista iz 19. i 20. veka (1867–1919)}}
{{Биографија
{{Infokutija biografija-lat
| име = C. J. Walker
| презиме titula_prefiks =
| сликаime = Madame CJ WalkerC.gifJ. Voker
| ширина_слике titula_sufiks = 250п
| опис_сликеslika = MadamMadame C.J.CJ VokerWalker.gif
| пуно_име širina_slike = 250px
| дан_рођењаalt =
| месец_рођењаopis_slike = Madam C.J. Voker
| година_рођењаpuno_ime = 1867.
| ime_po_rođenju =
| место_рођења = [[Делта (Луизијана)|Delta, Luizijana]]
| држава_рођења ostala_imena = [[SAD]]
| дан_смртиnadimak =
| datum_rođenja = {{birth date|1867|12|23|mf=y}}
| месец_смрти =
| mesto_rođenja = [[Delta (Luizijana)|Delta, Luizijana]]
| година_смрти = 1919.
| država_rođenja = [[SAD]]
| место_смрти = [[Ирвингтон (Њујорк)|Irvington, Njujork]]
| држава_смртиkršten = [[SAD]]
| datum_nestanka =
| mesto_nestanka =
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| datum_smrti = {{death date and age|1919|5|25|1867|12|23|mf=y}}
| mesto_smrti = [[Irvington (Njujork)|Irvington, Njujork]]
| država_smrti = [[SAD]]
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'''Sara Bridlav''' ({{jez-eng-lat|Sarah Breedlove}}; [[1867]] – [[1919]]) bila je inovatorka kozmetičkih sredstava za afroamerikanke.
 
 
Razvijajući poseban sistem prodaje svojih proizvoda metodom “od vrata do vrata”, Madam C.J. Voker, 1908. godine osnovala je “Leila College” u Pitsburgu, gde je obučavala prodaji žene širom amerike. Za samo dve godine, u prodajnoj mreži kompanije, bilo je zaposleno više od 1000 žena, koje su kompaniju učinile jednom od najuspešnijih u kozmetičkoj industriji.
Za samo 9 godina, C.J. Volker, uspela je da postane prva milionerka afroameričkog porekla, koja je bogatstvo stekla svojim izumom i napornim radom. Priznanje za uspeh dobila je od [[Ginisova knjiga rekorda|Ginisove knjige rekorda]] koja je zabeležila taj podatak.
 
Za samo 9 godina, C.J. Volker, uspela je da postane prva milionerka afroameričkog porekla, koja je bogatstvo stekla svojim izumom i napornim radom. Priznanje za uspeh dobila je od [[Ginisova knjiga rekorda|Ginisove knjige rekorda]] koja je zabeležila taj podatak.<ref name="Guinness">{{cite web |title=First self-made millionairess |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-self-made-millionairess |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=22 March 2020}}</ref> Više izvora spominje da iako su druge žene (poput [[Mary Ellen Pleasant|Meri Elen Plezant]]) možda bile prve, njihovo bogatstvo nije tako dobro dokumentovano.<ref name="Guinness"/><ref>{{cite web |last1=Bundles |first1=A’Lelia |title=Madam C.J. Walker: A Brief Biographical Essay |url=http://madamcjwalker.com/about/ |website=www.madamcjwalker.com |publisher=Official Website of Madam C.J. Walker |access-date=22 March 2020 |date=2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/100-amazing-facts/madam-walker-the-first-black-american-woman-to-be-a-self-made-millionaire/|title=Madam Walker, the First Black American Woman to Be a Self-Made Millionaire {{!}} The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross {{!}} PBS|last1=Gates|first1=Henry Louis|last2=Root|first2=Jr {{!}} Originally posted on The|date=2013-11-15|website=The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross|language=en-US|access-date=2020-03-22}}</ref> U trenutku smrti, smatrana je najbogatijom afroameričkom poslovnom ženom i najbogatijom crnkinjom koja je sama oformila svoj život.<ref>{{cite triumph|page=75}}</ref>
== Izvori ==
 
== Rani život ==
{{rut}}
Sarah Breedlove was born on December 23, 1867, close to [[Delta, Louisiana]]. Her parents were Owen and Minerva (Anderson) Breedlove.<ref name=BWA1209>Bundles, "Madam C J (Sarah Breedlove) Walker, 1867–1919" in ''Black Women in America'', v. II, p. 1209.</ref><ref name=Bundles-website>{{cite web|last1=Bundles|first1=A'Lelia|title=Madam C.J. Walker|url=http://www.madamcjwalker.com/bios/madam-c-j-walker/|website=Madame C. J. Walker|access-date=February 25, 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150225043003/http://www.madamcjwalker.com/bios/madam-c-j-walker/|archive-date=February 25, 2015|url-status=dead}}</ref> She had five siblings, who included an older sister, Louvenia, and four brothers: Alexander, James, Solomon, and Owen Jr. Robert W. Burney, primarily of European ancestry, enslaved her older siblings on his Madison Parish [[Plantation complexes in the Southern United States|plantation]]. Sarah was the first child in her family born into freedom after [[President Abraham Lincoln]] signed the [[Emancipation Proclamation]]. Her mother died in 1872, likely from cholera (an epidemic traveled with river passengers up the Mississippi, reaching Tennessee and related areas in 1873). Her father remarried but died a year later.<ref name="biography" />
 
She was orphaned at the age of seven. Sarah moved to [[Vicksburg, Mississippi]], at the age of 10, where she lived with Louvenia and her brother-in-law, Jesse Powell. She started working as a child as a [[domestic servant]].<ref name=BWA1209/><ref name=indiana-history>{{cite web | title=Madam C. J. Walker | url=https://indianahistory.org/education/educator-resources/famous-hoosiers/madam-c-j-walker/ | publisher=[[Indiana Historical Society]] }}</ref>
"I had little or no opportunity when I started out in life, having been left an orphan and being without mother or father since I was seven years of age," she often recounted. She also recounted that she had only three months of formal education, which she learned during Sunday school literacy lessons at the church she attended during her earlier years.<ref name="Her Own Ground 2001" />
 
== Brak i porodica ==
In 1882, at the age of 14, Sarah married Moses McWilliams, whose age was unknown, to escape abuse from her brother-in-law, Jesse Powell.<ref name=BWA1209/> Sarah and Moses had one daughter, Lelia McWilliams, who was born on June 6, 1885. When Moses died in 1887, Sarah was twenty and Lelia was two.<ref name=indiana-history/><ref name=NC100Bio>{{cite web | first =A'Lelia | last =Bundles | title =Biography of Madam C. J. Walker | publisher =National Coalition of 100 Black Women, Inc., Oakland/Bay Area Chapter | date =2014 | url =http://www.onehundredblackwomen.com/madame-c-j-walker/ | access-date =February 5, 2016 | archive-url =https://web.archive.org/web/20180328133356/http://www.onehundredblackwomen.com/madame-c-j-walker/ | archive-date =March 28, 2018 | url-status =dead }}</ref> Sarah remarried in 1894, but left her second husband, John Davis, around 1903.<ref>{{Bullet list|{{cite web |url= https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/resource/madam-c-j-walker/|title= Madam C. J. Walker|last=Klem|first= Monica|date=n.d.|website=Philanthropy Roundtable|language=en|archive-url=https://archive.ph/UEdjr| archive-date=March 22, 2022|access-date= March 22, 2022|url-status=live}}|{{cite book | first1=Linda C. | last1=Gugin | author2=James E. St. Clair | title=Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State | publisher =Indiana Historical Society Press| year =2015 | location =Indianapolis | page =360 | isbn =978-0-87195-387-2}}}}</ref>
 
In January 1906, Sarah married Charles Joseph Walker, a newspaper advertising salesman she had known in [[St. Louis, Missouri]]. Through this marriage, she became known as Madam C. J. Walker. The couple divorced in 1912; Charles died in 1926. Lelia McWilliams adopted her stepfather's surname and became known as [[A'Lelia Walker]].<ref name="indiana-history" /><ref name="BWA1210-11">Bundles, "Madam C J (Sarah Breedlove) Walker, 1867–1919" in ''Black Women in America'', v. II, pp. 1210–11.</ref><ref name="Riquier">{{cite web |last=Riquier |first=Andrea |date=2015-02-15 |title=Madam Walker Went from Laundress to Millionairess |url=http://news.investors.com/management-leaders-and-success/022415-740635-madam-walker-built-hair-care-empire-rose-from-washerwoman.htm |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201112050222/https://www.investors.com/madam-walker-built-hair-care-empire-rose-from-washerwoman/ |archive-date=2020-11-12 |access-date=February 8, 2016 |work=Investor's Business Daily}}</ref>
 
== Karijera ==
[[Датотека: Madam CJ Walker Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana (1911).jpg|thumb|left|250px|C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1911]]
[[Датотека:The Childrens Museum of Indianapolis - Madame C.J. Walkers Wonderful Hair Grower.jpg|thumb|250px|alt=A container of Madame C.J. Walker's Wonderful Hair Grower is held in the permanent collection of [[The Children's Museum of Indianapolis]].|Madam C. J. Walker's Wonderful Hair Grower in the permanent collection of [[The Children's Museum of Indianapolis]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Madam C.J. Walker's Wonderful Hair Grower product container|url=http://digitallibrary.imcpl.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/tcm/id/168|publisher=The Indianapolis Public Library|access-date= March 2, 2015}}</ref>]]
 
In 1888, she and her daughter moved to [[St. Louis]], where three of her brothers lived. Sarah found work as a [[laundress]], earning barely more than a dollar a day. She was determined to make enough money to provide her daughter with formal education.<ref name=bundles /><ref name=biography>{{cite web | url=https://www.biography.com/people/madam-cj-walker-9522174 | title=Madam C. J. Walker Biography |website=[[Biography.com]] | publisher=[[A&E Networks]]}}</ref> During the 1880s, she lived in a community where [[Ragtime]] music was developed; she sang at St. Paul [[African Methodist Episcopal Church]] and started to yearn for an educated life as she watched the community of women at her church.<ref name="Philanthropy" />
 
Sarah suffered severe [[dandruff]] and other scalp ailments, including baldness, due to skin disorders and the application of harsh products to cleanse hair and wash clothes. Other contributing factors to her hair loss included poor diet, illnesses, and infrequent bathing and hair washing during a time when most Americans lacked indoor plumbing, central heating, and electricity.<ref name="Riquier" /><ref name="Her Own Ground 2001">{{cite book | first=A'Lelia |last=Bundles| title=On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C. J. Walker| publisher=Scribner |location=New York|year=2001| isbn =978-0-7434-3172-9}}</ref><ref name="Ingham">{{cite ANB |id=1001700| first=John N. |last=Ingham|title =Walker, Madam C. J. | date=February 2000 |url = http://www.anb.org/view/10.1093/anb/9780198606697.001.0001/anb-9780198606697-e-1001700| access-date=February 14, 2019}}</ref>
 
Initially, Sarah learned about hair care from her brothers, who were barbers in St. Louis.<ref name="Her Own Ground 2001"/> Around the time of the [[Louisiana Purchase Exposition]] (World's Fair at St. Louis in 1904), she became a commission agent selling products for [[Annie Malone]], an African-American hair-care entrepreneur, millionaire, and owner of the Poro Company.<ref name=BWA1209/> Sales at the exposition were a disappointment since the African-American community was largely ignored.
 
While working for Malone, who would later become Walker's largest rival in the hair-care industry,<ref name="Philanthropy" /> Sarah began to take her new knowledge and develop her own product line.<ref name=BWA1210-11/> In July 1905, when she was 37 years old, Sarah and her daughter moved to [[Denver]], [[Colorado]], where she continued to sell products for Malone and develop her own hair-care business. A controversy developed between Annie Malone and Sarah because Malone accused Sarah of stealing her formula, a mixture of [[petroleum jelly]] and [[sulfur]] that had been in use for a hundred years.<ref name="daughter">{{Cite web |last=Oatman-Stanford |first=Hunter |date=2015-08-31 |title=The Sharcropper's Daughter Who Made Black Women Proud of Their Hair |url=https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/madam-walker/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://archive.ph/nAEe1 |archive-date=2015-10-24 |access-date=March 22, 2022 |website=[[Collectors Weekly]] |language=en}}</ref>
 
== Reference ==
{{reflist|refs=
<ref name="bundles">{{cite journal| first=A'Lelia | last=Bundles | title=Madam C. J. Walker: Business Savvy to Philanthropy |journal=eJournal USA | volume=16 | issue=6 | pages=3–5 | url=https://photos.state.gov/libraries/amgov/30145/publications-english/Black_Women_Leaders_eJ.pdf | publisher=[[United States Department of State]] | date=February 2012 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Philanthropy">{{cite web |last=Klem |first=Monica |date=2022-03-22 |title=Madam C. J. Walker |url=https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/almanac/people/hall-of-fame/detail/madam-c.-j.-walker |url-status=live |archive-url=https://archive.ph/UEdjr |archive-date=2022-03-22 |access-date=2022-03-22 |publisher=[[Philanthropy Roundtable]]}}</ref>
}}
 
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
*{{cite book|author=Bundles, A'Lelia Perry|title=On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C. J. Walker|publisher=Scribner|year=2001|isbn=978-0-7434-3172-9}}
*{{cite book|author=Freeman, Tyrone McKinley|title=Madam C. J. Walker's Gospel of Giving: Black Women's Philanthropy During Jim Crow|publisher=University of Illinois Press|year=2020|isbn=978-0-252-08535-2}}
*{{cite book|author=Bundles, A'Lelia Perry|title=Madam Walker Theatre Center: An Indianapolis Treasure|publisher=Arcadia Publishing|year=2013|isbn=978-1-4671-1087-7|series=Images of America|location=Charleston, SC|author-link=A'Lelia Bundles}}
*{{cite book|editor1-last=Sullivan|editor1-first=Otha Richard|editor2-last=Haskins|editor2-first=James|editor2-link=James Haskins|title=African American Women Scientists and Inventors|date=2002|publisher=Jossey-Bass|location=San Francisco|isbn=9780471387077|pages=[https://archive.org/details/africanamericanw00sull/page/25 25–30]|chapter=Madam C.J. Walker (1867–1919)|chapter-url=https://archive.org/details/africanamericanw00sull/page/25}}
 
=== Juvenilna publicistika ===
 
* Bundles, A'Lelia (2018). ''All About Madam C.J. [https://www.worldcat.org/title/all-about-madam-cj-walker/oclc/1017967685?referer=di&ht=edition Walker]''. Indianapolis, Indiana: Blue River Press. {{ISBN|9781681570938}}
* {{cite book| author=Bundles, A'Lelia Perry|title=Madam C. J. Walker: Entrepreneur |publisher=Chelsea House| series =Black Americans of Achievement | edition =Legacy |year=2008| location =New York | isbn=978-1-60413-072-0}}
* {{cite book | author =Colman, Penny | title =Madam C. J. Walker: Building a Business Empire | publisher =The Millbrook Press | series =Gateway Biography | year =1994 | location =Brookfield, CT | url =https://archive.org/details/madamcjwalkerbui00colm | isbn =9781562943387 | author-link =Penny Colman }}
 
=== Beletristika za odrasle ===
* {{cite book |author=Due, Tananarive |title=The Black Rose: The Dramatic Story of Madam C. J. Walker, America's First Black Female Millionaire |publisher=Ballantine Books |year=2000 |isbn=978-0-345-44156-0 |url=https://archive.org/details/blackrose00tana |author-link=Tananarive Due }}
 
{{refend}}
 
== Spoljašnje veze ==
{{Commons category-lat|Madam C. J. Walker}}
* {{Official website|https://madamcjwalker.com/}}
* {{YouTube|AuYjx7zDBas|Madam C J Walker – Successful Business Woman}}
* {{YouTube|Kk-17lfCeGs|Stanley Nelson Interviews Madam C. J. Walker's Great Grand Daughter}} (Walker's political activism and philanthropy)
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090416140853/http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Harlem/text/cjwalker.html Sara Bridlav na -{School of Information - University of Michigan}-]
* [http://www.madamcjwalker.com/ Sara Bridlav na -{zvaničnoj prezentaciji}-]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090309111746/http://www.blackinventor.com/pages/madamewalker.html Sara Bridlav na -{Black Inventor Online Museum}-]
* [http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/CJ ''On Her Own Ground: Madame C. J. Walker'']. [[C-SPAN]]. January 27, 2001. (Book discussion)
* {{YouTube|p3qjlLYszEI|Madam Walker Research in the National Archives}}
* {{YouTube|-O4BGrMcD4o|The Legacy of Madam Walker}} (Part 1)
* {{YouTube|2lXl8XKfZ-8|Madam C J Walker}} (Indiana Bicentennial Minute, 2016)
* {{YouTube|n4knvT_-IO8|Madam C J Walker Estate}} (Part 1 of 5) Villa Lewaro, Irvington-on-Hudson, New York
* Michals, Debra. [https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/madam-cj-walker "Madam C. J. Walker"]. National Women's History Museum. 2015.
 
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