Indo-grčko kraljevstvo

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Indo-grčko kraljevstvo

180 pne–10. godina
Teritorija Indo-grka oko 100 pne.
Teritorija Indo-grka oko 100 pne.
PrestonicaAleksandrija na Kavkazu (Kapisi/Bagram)
Taksila (Sirkap)
Činiotis (Činiot)
Sagala (Sijalkot)
Peukelaotis (Čarsada, Puškalavati)
Zajednički jeziciGrčki (Grčki alfabet)
Pali (Karošči pismo)
Sanskrit
Prakrit
(Brahmi pismo)
Religija
Grčki politeizam
budizam
hinduizam
zoroastrianizam
VladaMonarhija
Kralj 
• 180–160 pne
Apolodot I
• 25 pne – 10.
Strato II & Strato III
Istorijska eraAntika
• Uspostavljanje
180 pne
• Ukidanje
10. godina
Površina
150 pne[1]1.100.000 km2 (420.000 sq mi)
Prethodnik
Naslednik
Grčko-baktrijsko kraljevstvo
Indo-Skiti
Danas deoAfganistan
Indija
Pakistan
Turkmenistan

Indo-grčko kraljevstvo ili Grčko-indijsko kraljevstvo[2] je bilo helenističko kraljevstvo koje se prostiralo od današnjeg Afganistana, u klasičnim ograničenjima Pundžaba Indijskog potkontinenta (severni Pakistan i severozapadna Indija),[3][4][5][6][7][8] tokom poslednja dva veka pre nove ere. Kraljevstvom je vladalo više od trideset kraljeva, često u međusobnom sukobu.

Kraljevstvo je osnovano kada je grčko-baktrijski kralj Demetrije napao potkontinent početkom drugog veka pre nove ere. Grci na Indijskom potkontinentu su na kraju odvojeni od Grko-baktrijaca koncentrisanih u Baktriji (sada granici između Afganistana i Uzbekistana), i Indo-grka u današnjem severozapadnom Indijskom potkontinentu. Najpoznatiji indo-grčki vladar bio je Menander (Milinda). On je imao prestonicu u Sakali u Pundžabu (današnjem Sialkotu).

Izraz „Indo-grčko kraljevstvo” labavo opisuje niz različitih dinastičkih politika, koje su tradicionalno povezane sa velikim brojem regionalnih prestonica, kao što je Taksila[9] (moderni Pandžab (Pakistan)), Puškalavati i Sagala.[10] Drugi potencijalni centri su samo nagovešteni; na primer, Ptolomejeva Geografija i nomenklatura kasnijih kraljeva sugerišu da je izvesni Teofil na jugu indo-grčke sfere uticaja takođe mogao biti satrapno ili kraljevsko sedište u jednom trenutku.

Tokom dva veka njihove vladavine, indo-grčki kraljevi su kombinovali grčke i indijske jezike i simbole, kao što se vidi na njihovim kovanicama, i mešali grčke i indijske ideje, kao što se vidi u arheološkim ostacima.[11] Rasprostranjenost indo-grčke kulture imala je posledice koje se i danas osećaju, naročito kroz uticaj grčko-budističke umetnosti.[12] Etnička pripadnost Indo-grka je možda u određenoj meri hibridna. Eutidem I bio je, prema Polibiju,[13] Magnezijski Grk. Njegov sin, Demetrijus I, osnivač Indo-grčkog kraljevstva, bio je stoga grčkog etničkog porekla barem po ocu. Dogovor o braku je sklopljen za Demetrija sa kćerkom seleukidskog vladara Antioha III (koji je delom imao persijsko poreklo).[14] Etnička pripadnost kasnijih indo-grčkih vladara je ponekad manje jasna.[15] Na primer, pretpostavlja se da je Artemidoros (80. pne) bio indo-skitskog porekla, iako je to sada sporno.[16]

Nakon smrti Menandera, veći deo njegovog carstva je razbijen i indo-grčki uticaj je znatno smanjen. Mnoga nova kraljevstva i republike istočno od reke Ravi počele su da prave nove kovanice koje prikazuju vojne pobede.[17] Najistaknutiji entiteti koji su se formirali bile su republika Jaudeja, Arjunajanas i Audumbaras. Jaudeja i Arjunajanas su obe tvrdile da su osvojile „pobedu mačem”.[18] U Maturi su ubrzo sledile dinastija Data i dinastija Mitra. Indo-grci su na kraju nestali kao politički entitet oko 10. godine nakon invazije Indo-skita, iako su se enklave grčkih populacija verovatno zadržale tokom nekoliko vekova pod kasnijom vladavinom Indo-partijanaca i Kušana.[19]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). „Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.”. Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 132. JSTOR 1170959. doi:10.2307/1170959. 
  2. ^ As in other compounds such as "African-American", "Asian-American", "French-Canadian" and so on, the nationality or race of the newcomers usually comes first, and the area of arrival comes second, so that "Greco-Indian" is normally a more accurate nomenclature than "Indo-Greek". The latter however has become the general usage, especially since the publication of Narain's book The Indo-Greeks. In Thomas McEvilley 2002 "The Shape of Ancient Greek Thought" p. 395 Note 52
  3. ^ Jackson J. Spielvogel (14. 9. 2016). Western Civilization: Volume A: To 1500. Cengage Learning. стр. 96. ISBN 978-1-305-95281-2. »The invasion of India by a Greco-Bactrian army in ... led to the creation of an Indo-Greek kingdom in northwestern India (present-day India and Pakistan).« 
  4. ^ Erik Zürcher (1962). Buddhism: its origin and spread in words, maps, and pictures. St Martin's Press. стр. 45. »Three phases must be distinguished, (a) The Greek rulers of Bactria (the Oxus region) expand their power to the south, conquer Afghanistan and considerable parts of north-western India, and establish an Indo-Greek kingdom in the Panjab where they rule as 'kings of India'; i« 
  5. ^ Heidi Roupp (4. 3. 2015). Teaching World History: A Resource Book. Routledge. стр. 171. ISBN 978-1-317-45893-7. »There were later Indo-Greek kingdoms in northwest India. ...« 
  6. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Psychology Press. стр. 74. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4. »They are referred to as 'Indo-Greeks' and there were about forty such kings and rulers who controlled large areas of northwestern India and Afghanistan. Their history ...« 
  7. ^ Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Pratapaditya Pal (1986). Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.-A.D. 700. University of California Press. стр. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-05991-7. »Since parts of their territories comprised northwestern India, these later rulers of Greek origin are generally referred to as Indo-Greeks.« 
  8. ^ Joan Aruz; Elisabetta Valtz Fino (2012). Afghanistan: Forging Civilizations Along the Silk Road. Metropolitan Museum of Art. стр. 42. ISBN 978-1-58839-452-1. »The existence of Greek kingdoms in Central Asia and northwestern India after Alexander's conquests had been known for a long time from a few fragmentary texts from Greek and Latin classical sources and from allusions in contemporary Chinese chronicles and later Indian texts.« 
  9. ^ Mortimer Wheeler Flames over Persepolis (London, 1968). Pp. 112 ff. It is unclear whether the Hellenistic street plan found by Sir John Marshall's excavations dates from the Indo-Greeks or from the Kushans, who would have encountered it in Bactria; Tarn (1951, pp. 137, 179) ascribes the initial move of Taxila to the hill of Sirkap to Demetrius I, but sees this as "not a Greek city but an Indian one"; not a polis or with a Hippodamian plan.
  10. ^ "Menander had his capital in Sagala" Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p. 83. McEvilley supports Tarn on both points, citing Woodcock: "Menander was a Bactrian Greek king of the Euthydemid dynasty. His capital (was) at Sagala (Sialkot) in the Punjab, "in the country of the Yonakas (Greeks)"." McEvilley, p. 377. However, "Even if Sagala proves to be Sialkot, it does not seem to be Menander's capital for the Milindapanha states that Menander came down to Sagala to meet Nagasena, just as the Ganges flows to the sea."
  11. ^ "A vast hoard of coins, with a mixture of Greek profiles and Indian symbols, along with interesting sculptures and some monumental remains from Taxila, Sirkap and Sirsukh, point to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences", India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 130
  12. ^ Ghose, Sanujit (2011). "Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world". Ancient History Encyclopedia
  13. ^ 11.34
  14. ^ Polybius 11.34
  15. ^ ("Notes on Hellenism in Bactria and India". W. W. Tarn. Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 22 (1902), pp. 268–293).
  16. ^ Osmund Bopearachchi Was Indo-Greek Artemidoros the son of Indo-Sctythian Maues
  17. ^ "Most of the people east of the Ravi already noticed as within Menander's empire -Audumbaras, Trigartas, Kunindas, Yaudheyas, Arjunayanas- began to coins in the first century BC, which means that they had become independent kingdoms or republics.", Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India
  18. ^ Tarn, William Woodthorpe (2010-06-24). The Greeks in Bactria and India. ISBN 9781108009416. 
  19. ^ "When the Greeks of Bactria and India lost their kingdom they were not all killed, nor did they return to Greece. They merged with the people of the area and worked for the new masters; contributing considerably to the culture and civilization in southern and central Asia." Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 278

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Spoljašnje veze[уреди]