Istorija Brazila

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Evolucija administrativne podele Brazila

Istorija Brazila počinje sa autohtonim narodima Brazila. Evropljani su stigli u Brazil na početku 16. veka. Prvi Evropljanin koji je uspostavio suverenitet nad domorodačkim zemljama koje su deo onoga što je sada teritorija Federativne Republike Brazil na kontinentu Južne Amerike bio je Pedro Alvares Kabral (c. 1467/1468 - c. 1520) dana 22. aprila 1500. godine pod pokroviteljstvom Kraljevine Portugalije. Brazil je od 16. do početka 19. veka bio kolonija i deo Portugalskog carstva. Zemlja se proširila na jug duž obale i na zapad duž Amazona i drugih unutrašnjih reka od prvobitnih 15 kolonija donatorskih kapetanija uspostavljenih na severoistočnoj obali Atlantika istočno od Tordesiljske linije iz 1494. (približno 46. meridijana zapadno), koja je razdvajala portugalsko područje na istoku od španskog domena na zapadu, iako je Brazil tokom jednog perioda bio kolonija Španije.[1] Granice zemlje su finalizovane tek početkom 20. veka.

Dana 7. septembra 1822. zemlja je proglasila nezavisnost od Portugalije i postala carstvo Brazila. Vojnim udarom 1889. osnovana je Prva brazilska republika. Zemlja je doživela dva perioda diktature: prvi tokom Vargasove ere (1930–1934 i 1937–1945) i drugi tokom vojne vladavine (1964–1985) pod brazilskom vojnom vladom.

Prekolonijalna istorija[уреди | уреди извор]

Pećinska slika u nacionalnom parku Sera de Kapivara. Ova oblast ima najveću koncentraciju praistorijskih lokacija u Amerikama.[2]

Neki od najranijih ljudskih ostataka pronađeni u Americi, kao što je Luzijska žena, pronađena u oblasti Pedro Leopoldo u Minas Žeraisu, i pružaju dokaze o ljudskoj habitaciji od pre najmanje 11.000 godina.[3][4]

Kada su portugalski istraživači stigli u Brazil, region je bio naseljen stotinama različitih tipova domorodačkih plemena, „najstarija sa tradicijom od najmanje 10.000 godina u planinama Minas Žerais”.[4] Određivanje porekla prvih stanovnika, koje su Portugalci nazvali „Indijancima” (índios), još je pitanje spora među arheolozima. Najstarija keramika koja je ikada pronađena u zapadnoj hemisferi, radiougljenično datirana na pre 8000 godina, iskopana je u slivu Amazona u Brazilu, u blizini Santarema, i pruža dokaze da tropska šumska regija nije bila previše siromašna resursima da bi podržala složene praistorijske kulture.[5] Trenutno najšire prihvaćeno mišljenje antropologa, lingvista i genetičara je da su rana plemena bila deo prvog talasa lovaca migranata koji su u Ameriku stigli iz Azije, bilo kopnom, preko Beringovog tjesnaca, ili obalskim morskim putevima duž Tihog okeana, ili oba.

Andi i planinski lanci severnog dela Južne Amerike stvorili su prilično oštru kulturnu granicu između naseljenih agrarnih civilizacija zapadne obale i polunomadskih plemena na istoku, koja nikada nisu razvila pisane zapise ili trajnu monumentalnu arhitekturu. Iz tog razloga, o istoriji Brazila se ne zna mnogo pre 1500. godine. Arheološki ostaci (uglavnom keramike) ukazuju na složen obrazac regionalnog kulturnog razvoja, unutrašnjih migracija i povremeno velikih federacija nalik na državu.

U vreme evropskog otkrića, teritorija današnjeg Brazila imala je čak 2.000 plemena. Autohtoni narodi su tradicionalno uglavnom bili polunomadska plemena koja su živela od lova, ribolova, sakupljanja i migrantske poljoprivrede. Kada su Portugalci stigli 1500. godine, domoroci su živeli uglavnom na obali i duž obala velikih reka.

Plemensko ratovanje, kanibalizam i potraga za brazilskim drvetom zbog njegove cenjene crvene boje uverili su Portugalce da trebaju da pokrste domoroce. Međutim Portugalci su, poput Španaca u svojim južnoameričkim posedima, sa sobom su doneli bolesti, protiv kojih su mnogi urođenici bili nemoćni zbog nedostatka imuniteta. Ospice, boginje, tuberkuloza, gonoreja i grip ubili su desetine hiljada domorodačkih ljudi. Bolesti su se brzo proširile autohtonim trgovinskim putevima, i cela plemena su verovatno bila uništena, a da nikada nisu došla u direktan kontakt sa Evropljanima.

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ History of Colonial Brazil
  2. ^ Romero, Simon (27. 3. 2014). „Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans' Arrival in the Americas”. New York Times. Приступљено 31. 5. 2014. 
  3. ^ About.com, http://gobrazil.about.com/od/ecotourismadventure/ss/Peter-Lund-Museum.htm
  4. ^ а б Robert M. Levine; John J. Crocitti (1999). The Brazil Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. стр. 11—. ISBN 978-0-8223-2290-0. Приступљено 12. 12. 2012. 
  5. ^ Science Magazine, 13 December 1991 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5038/1621.abstract

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Istoriografija[уреди | уреди извор]

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  • Perez, Carlos. "Brazil" in Kelly Boyd, ed. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, vol 1 (1999) 1:115-22.
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. "The Historiography of Brazil, 1889–1964: Part I." Hispanic American Historical Review 55#4 (1975): 716–748. in JSTOR
  • Stein, Stanley J. "The historiography of Brazil 1808–1889." Hispanic American Historical Review 40#2 (1960): 234–278. in JSTOR

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