Istorija Pakistana

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Иди на навигацију Иди на претрагу

Istorija Pakistana obuhvata istoriju regiona koji sačinjava današnji Pakistan. Ona je isprepletena sa istorijom šireg Indijskog potkontinenta i okolnih regiona Južne Azije, Istočne Azije, Centralne Azije i Bliskog Istoka.[1] Smatra se da su anatomski moderni ljudi stigli u Pakistan pre 73 000 do 55 000 godina.[2] Naseljeni život koji uključuje prelazak sa sakupljanja na poljoprivredu i pastoralizam, počeo je u Pakistanu oko 7000 pne. Domestikacija pšenice i ječma koja je ubrzo praćena pripitomljavanjem koza, ovaca i goveda, dokumentovana je u Mergaru u Beludžistanu.[3] Do 4.500 pne, naseljeni život je postao šire rasprostranjen,[3] i na kraju je evoluirao u civilizaciju doline Inda,[4] ranu civilizaciju Starog sveta koja je bila veća po kopnenoj površini od njenih savremenika Drevog Egipta i Mesopotamije zajedno.[5][6][7][8] Ona je cvetala između 2.500 pne i 1.900 godine pne sa sedištima u Harapi[9] i Mohendžo-daru,[10] usredsređena uglavnom na Centralni i Južni Pakistan.[11]

Civilizacija doline Inda bila je poznata po razvijenim novim tehnikama zanatstva, ukrasnih proizvoda, rezbarenja pečata, metalurgije, urbanističkog planiranja, kuća od pečene cigle, efikasnih drenažnih sistema, vodovodnih sistema i klastera velikih nestambenih zgrada.[12] To je bila jedna od prvih civilizacija koja je koristila prevoz na točkovima u obliku volovskih kola, a takođe je koristila i čamce.[13] Induska civilizacija je znatno zavisila od trgovine. Trgovinski putevi koji presecaju dolinu Inda i koji povezuju centralnu Aziju, Indijski potkontinent i Orijent privukli su ljude iz Grčke i Mongolije.[14] Početkom drugog milenijuma pre nove ere klimatske promene su, uz stalne suše, dovele do napuštanja urbanih središta civilizacije doline Inda. Njeno stanovništvo se preselilo u manja sela i pomešalo se sa indo-arijskim plemenima, koji su se preselila u druga područja Indijskog potkontinenta u nekoliko talasa migracije, takođe pod uticajem posledica ove klimatske promene.[15]

Istorija Pakistana za period koji je prethodio stvaranju zemlje 1947. godine[16] zajednička je sa istorijama Avganistana, Indije i Irana. Obuhvaćajući zapadni prostor Indijskog potkontinenta i istočne granice Iranske visoravni, region današnjeg Pakistana služio je i kao plodno tlo velike civilizacije i kao ulaz Južne Azije u Srednju Aziju i Bliski Istok.[17][18]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ „Pakistan: The lesser-known histories of an ancient land”. 
  2. ^ Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (22. 5. 2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. стр. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, стр. 44, 51, ISBN 978-0-521-57652-9 
  4. ^ Coppa, A.; L. Bondioli; A. Cucina; D. W. Frayer; C. Jarrige; J. F. Jarrige; G. Quivron; M. Rossi; M. Vidale; R. Macchiarelli (2006). „Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry”. Nature. 440 (7085): 755—756. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..755C. PMID 16598247. doi:10.1038/440755a. 
  5. ^ Possehl, G. L. (октобар 1990). „Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization”. Annual Review of Anthropology. 19 (1): 261—282. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001401. Приступљено 6. 5. 2007. 
  6. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Kimberley Heuston (мај 2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517422-9. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 20. 11. 2012. 
  7. ^ „Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan”. Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield. Приступљено 1. 12. 2007. 
  8. ^ Murray, Tim (1999). Time and archaeology. London; New York: Routledge. стр. 84. ISBN 978-0-415-11762-3. 
  9. ^ „Recent Indus Discoveries and Highlights from Excavations at Harappa 1998-2000”. www.harappa.com. Приступљено 2019-03-31. 
  10. ^ „Mohenjo-daro!”. www.harappa.com. Приступљено 2019-06-19. 
  11. ^ „Mohenjo-daro!”. www.harappa.com. Приступљено 2019-05-18. 
  12. ^ Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, стр. 115—125, ISBN 978-0-521-57652-9 
  13. ^ Hasenpflug, Rainer, The Inscriptions of the Indus civilisation Norderstedt, Germany, 2006
  14. ^ Young, Margaret Walsh; Susan L. Stetler (новембар 1987). Cities of the World, 3rd Edition, Vol. 4, Page 439. Gale Research. ISBN 978-0810325425. 
  15. ^ Kochhar, Rajesh (2000), The Vedic People: Their History and Geography, Sangam Books 
  16. ^ Pakistan was created as the Dominion of Pakistan on 14 August 1947 after the end of British rule in, and partition of British India.
  17. ^ Neelis, Jason (2007), „Passages to India: Śaka and Kuṣāṇa migrations in historical contexts”, Ур.: Srinivasan, Doris, On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa World, Routledge, стр. 55—94, ISBN 978-90-04-15451-3  Quote: "Numerous passageways through the northwestern frontiers of the Indian subcontinent in modern Pakistan and Afghanistan served as migration routes to South Asia from the Iranian plateau and the Central Asian steppes. Prehistoric and protohistoric exchanges across the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalaya ranges demonstrate earlier precedents for routes through the high mountain passes and river valleys in later historical periods. Typological similarities between Northern Neolithic sites in Kashmir and Swat and sites in the Tibetan plateau and northern China show that 'Mountain chains have often integrated rather than isolated peoples.' Ties between the trading post of Shortughai in Badakhshan (northeastern Afghanistan) and the lower Indus valley provide evidence for long-distance commercial networks and 'polymorphous relations' across the Hindu Kush until c. 1800 B.C.' The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) may have functioned as a 'filter' for the introduction of Indo-Iranian languages to the northwestern Indian subcontinent, although routes and chronologies remain hypothetical. (page 55)"
  18. ^ Marshall, John (2013) [1960], A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, стр. 1—, ISBN 978-1-107-61544-1  Quote: "Here also, in ancient days, was the meeting-place of three great trade-routes , one, from Hindustan and Eastern India, which was to become the `royal highway' described by Megasthenes as running from Pataliputra to the north-west of the Maurya empire; the second from Western Asia through Bactria, Kapisi and Pushkalavati and so across the Indus at Ohind to Taxila; and the third from Kashmir and Central Asia by way of the Srinagar valley and Baramula to Mansehra and so down the Haripur valley. These three trade-routes, which carried the bulk of the traffic passing by land between India and Central and Western Asia, played an all-important part in the history of Taxila. (page 1)"

Literatura[уреди]

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]