Kraljevstvo Ajutaja

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Ajutajska kraljevina

อาณาจักรอยุธยา
1350–1767
Flag of Kraljevstvo Ajutaja
državna zastava
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pečat
Ajutajska zona uticaja i susedi, c. 1540
Ajutajska zona uticaja i susedi, c. 1540
StatusIstorijsko kraljevstvo
PrestonicaAjutaja (1350–1463)

Ficanulok (1463–1488)
Ajutaja (1488–1666)
Lopburi (1666–1688)

Ajutaja (1688–1767)
Zajednički jeziciAjutajski dijalekat
Religija
većina: teravada budizam
manjina: hinduizam, katoličanstvo, islam
Vladafeudalna monarhija sa Čatu Sadom kao izvršnom vlašću.
kralj 
• 1350–69
Ramatibodi I (Utong)
• 1590–1605
Sanfet II (Naresuan)
• 1656–88
Ramatibodi III (Naraj)
• 1758–67
Boromarača III (Ekatat)
Zakonodavstvonijedno (apsolutna monarhija)
Istorijska erasrednji vek & renesansa
• Utongov uspon na tron u Ajutaju
1350
1438
1564, 1569
• Spajanje sa Sukotajom, i nezavisnost od Taungura
1583, 1584
• Naresuan i Minguj Svaov slonovski rat
1593
• Okončanje Sukotajske dinastije
1629
1767
Prethodnik
Naslednik
Lavo kraljevstvo
Sukotajsko kraljevstvo
Nakon Si Tamarat kraljevstvo
Tonburi kraljevstvo
Danas deoTajland
Malezija
Mjanmar
Kambodža

Kraljevstvo Ajutaja (tajski อยุธยา, RTGSAyutthaya) bilo je sijamsko kraljevstvo koje je postojalo od 1350 do 1767. godine. Ajutaja je imala prijateljske odnose prema stranim trgovcima, među kojima su bili Kinezi, Vijetnamci, Portugalci, Indijci, Japanci, Korejci, Persijci, a kasnije i Španci, Holanđani, Englezi i Francuzi, dozvoljavajući im da osnuju sela van zidina prestonice, koja se takođe zvala Ajutaja.

U 16. veku, strani trgovci opisali su ovaj grad kao jedan od najvećih i najbogatijih gradova na Istoku. Dvor kralja Naraja (1656. - 1688) imao je snažne veze sa francuskim kraljem Lujom XIV, čiji su ambasadori grad po veličini i bogatstvu upoređivali sa Parizom.

Do 1550. godine, vazali kraljevstva obuhvatali su neke gradove-države na Malajskom poluostrvu, Sukotaju, Lan-Na i delove Burme i Kambodže.[1] Ovaj deo istorije kraljevstva ponekad se naziva i „Ajutajsko carstvo”.

U stranim zapisima, Ajutaja se zvala „Sijam”, mada mnogi izvori takođe navode da je Ajutajski narod sebe nazivao Tajima, a svoje kraljevstvo Krung Taj (กรุงไท), što znači tajska zemlja (krng thị). Ovo kraljevstvo se takođe pominje kao Iudea na slici napravljenoj po narudžbini Holandske istočnoindijske kompanije.[note 1]

Napomene[уреди]

  1. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). „XVIII City of Bang-kok”. Embassy to the Eastern courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat in the U. S. sloop-of-war Peacock during the years 1832-3-4. Harper & Brothers. стр. image 288. OCLC 12212199. »The spot on which the present capital stands, and the country in its vicinity, on both banks of the river for a considerable distance, were formerly, before the removal of the court to its present situation called Bang-kok; but since that time, and for nearly sixty years past, it has been named Sia yuthia, (pronounced See-ah you-tè-ah, and by the natives, Krung, that is, the capital;) it is called by both names here, but never Bang-kok; and they always correct foreigners when the latter make this mistake. The villages which occupy the right hand of the river, opposite to the capital, pass under the general name of Bang-kok.« 

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Hooker, Virginia Matheson (2003). A Short History of Malaysia: Linking East and West. St Leonards, New South Wales, AU: Allen & Unwin. стр. 72. ISBN 978-1-86448-955-2. Приступљено 5. 7. 2009. 

Literatura[уреди]

  • Original text adapted from the Library of Congress Country Study of Thailand
  • Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-64113-2. 
  • Higham, Charles (1989). The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27525-5. Приступљено 6. 9. 2009. 
  • Kohn, George Childs (1999). Dictionary of WarsНеопходна слободна регистрација (Revised изд.). New York: Facts On File, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-3928-9. 
  • Marcinkowski, M. Ismail (2005). From Isfahan to Ayutthaya: Contacts between Iran and Siam in the 17th Century. Singapore: Pustaka Nasional. ISBN 9971-77-491-7. Приступљено 8. 8. 2009. 
  • Syamananda, Rong (1990). A History of Thailand. Chulalongkorn University. ISBN 974-07-6413-4. 
  • Wood, W.A.R (1924). A History of Siam. London: Fisher Unwin Ltd. 
  • Wyatt, David K. (2003). Thailand: A Short History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08475-7. 
  • Ruangsilp, Bhawan (2007). Dutch East India Company Merchants at the Court of Ayutthaya: Dutch Perceptions of the Thai Kingdom, Ca. 1604–1765. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-15600-3. 
  • Chrystall, Beatrice (2004). Connections Without Limit: The Refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana (Dissertation). Cambridge: Harvard University. 
  • Listopad, John A (1995). The Art and Architecture of the Reign of Somdet Phra Narai (Dissertation). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. 
  • Peerapun, Wannasilpa (1991). The Economic Impact of Historic Sites on the Economy of Ayutthaya, Thailand (Dissertation). University of Akron. 
  • Smith, George V (1974). The Dutch East India Company in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, 1604–1694 (Dissertation). Northern Illinois University. 
  • Smithies, Michael (1999). A Siamese Embassy Lost in Africa 1686: The Odyssey of Ok-Khun Chamman. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 978-974-710-095-2. 
  • Fernquest, Jon (proleće 2005). „The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma Back to Laos in 1596: A Comparison of Historical Sources”. SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. SOAS, University of London. 3 (1). ISSN 1479-8484. 
  • Hardiman, John Percy (1901). Sir James George Scott, ур. Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States Part 2. 1. Government Press, British Burma. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • James, Helen (2004). „Burma-Siam Wars and Tenasserim”. Ур.: Keat Gin Ooi. Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. 
  • Rajanubhab, Damrong (2001). Chris Baker, ур. Our Wars with the Burmese: Thai-Burmese Conflict 1539–1767. Превод: Aung Thein. White Lotus Co. Ltd. ISBN 974-7534-58-4. 
  • Steinberg, David Joel (1987). David Joel Steinberg, ур. In Search of South-East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Society, Siam (1904). The Journal of the Siam Society. 1—3. Bangkok: Siam Society. 
  • Symes, Michael (proleće 2006). „An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, Sent by the Governor-General of India, in the year of 1795”. SBBR. SOAS, University of London. 4. 
  • Discovery Channel by Scott Rutherford, "Insight Guides: Thailand.", APA Publications GmbH & Co., 2004.
  • Discovery Channel by Steve Van Beek, "Insight Pocket Guide: Thailand.", APA Publications GmbH & Co., 2004.
  • Maria Grazia Casella and Paola Piacco, "Thailand: Nature and Wonders.", Asia Books Co,.Ltd., 2004.
  • John Hoskin and Gerald Cubitt, "This is Thailand.", Asia Books Co.,Ltd., 2003

Kraljevske hronike Ajutije[уреди]

Postoji 18 verzija Kraljevskih hronika Ajutije (Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya) koje su poznate naučnicima. Pogledajte Wyatt, David K. (1999). Chronicle of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya. Tokyo: The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, The Toyo Bunko. стр. Introduction, 14. ISBN 978-4-89656-613-0. )

Burmansko stanovište[уреди]

Ovo su Burmanski istorijski zapisi o Ajutiji.

  • Kham Hai Kan Chao Krung Kao (Lit. Testimony of inhabitants of Old Capital (i.e., Ayutthaya))
  • Kham Hai Kan Khun Luang Ha Wat (Lit. Testimony of the "King who Seeks a Temple" (nickname of King Uthumphon)) – An English translation.
  • Palm Leaf Manuscripts No.11997 of the Universities Central Library Collection or Yodaya Yazawin – Available in English in Tun Aung Chain tr. (2005) Chronicle of Ayutthaya, Yangon: Myanmar Historical Commission

Zapadno stanovište[уреди]

  • Second Voyage du Pere Tachard et des Jesuites envoyes par le Roi au Royaume de Siam. Paris: Horthemels, 1689.

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]