Narodna religija

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U religijskim studijama i folkloristici, narodna religija, popularna religija ili vernakularna religija se sastoji od raznih formi i izraza religije koji se razlikuju od zvaničnih doktrina i praksi organizovane religije. Precizna definicija narodne religije varira među učenjacima. Ponekad se naziva i popularnim verovanjem. Ona se sastoji od etničkih ili regionalnih religijskih običaja pod okriljem religije, ali izvan zvanične doktrine i prakse.[1]

Termin „narodna religija” uglavnom se odnosi na dva povezana, ali zasebna subjekta. Prvi je verska dimenzija narodne kulture, ili narodno-kulturna dimenzija religije. Drugi se odnosi na proučavanje sinkretizma između dve kulture sa različitim stupljevima formalnog izražavanja, poput mešavine afričkih narodnih verovanja i rimokatoličanstva koji su doveli do razvoja vudua i santerije, i sličnih mešavina formalnih religija sa narodnim kulturama.

Kineska narodna religija, narodno hrišćanstvo, narodni hinduizam i narodni islam su primeri narodne religije povezane sa glavnim religijama. Izraz se takođe koristi, posebno od strane sveštenstva uključenih vera, da se opišu težnje ljudi koji inače retko prisustvuju verskom bogosluženju, ne pripadaju crkvi ili sličnom verskom društvu, i koji nisu izrazili formalnu pripadnost datoj veri, da bi imali religiozna venčanja ili sahrane, ili (među hrišćanima) da se njihova deca krste.[1]

Opis[уреди | уреди извор]

Narodne religije karakteriše praksa religije izvan nadzora teologa ili klerika. U narodinm religijama nema strogo određenih pravila bogosluženja.

U narodnim religijama veliku važnosti ima magija, verovanje u delovanje natprirodnih sila na koje čovek može uticati radi svoje koristi. Magija se pojavila u svim kulturama u ranom razvoju, od Aboridžina u Australiji da prašume Amazona u Južnoj Americi, plemena u Africi do poganskih plemena u Britaniji. Magijske rituale se najčešće izvodili verski poglavari, sveštenici, druidi ili šamani.

Žrtva predstavlja poklon bogovima ili višim bićima da bi se oni zadovoljili ili da bi se verniku koji pridaje žrtvu ostvarile želje ili molitve. Način žrtvovanja je većinom spaljivanje. Žrtvuje se hrana, životinje, mirisno bilje ili u ekstremnim slučajevima čak i ljudi. Najpoznatiji žrtvovatelji ljudi su Asteci koji su ponekad žrtvovali hiljade ljudi u posebnim svečanostima.

Većina narodnih religija praktikuje poštovanje predaka ili duhova predaka. Ono je rašireno širom sveta, a najjače je u Kini. U katoličkoj veri se takođe zadržao ovaj običaj, a obeležava se 1. novembra kao Svi sveti.

Nakon preobraćanja od narodne religije na neku svjetsku religiju, narod zadržava mnogo običaja koji se tiču rođenja, venčanja, pogreba, ali i praznoverja. Praznoverje je verovanje ili mišljenje koje nije osnovano na znanju niti iskustvu. Najčešće se odnosi na sreću, proročanstva, duhove ili buduće događaje na koje se misli da se može uticati. Ono učestvuje u narodinm religijama kao povod za neki religijski obred koji praktikuju vernici.

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Bowman, Marion (2004). „Chapter 1: Phenomenology, Fieldwork, and Folk Religion”. Ур.: Sutcliffe, Steven. Religion: empirical studies. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. стр. 3—4. ISBN 978-0-7546-4158-2. 

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