Neoklasicizam (muzika)

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Igor Stravinski, jedan od najvažnijih i najuticajnijih kompozitora 20. veka

Neoklasicizam u muzici bio je trend dvadesetog veka, posebno aktuelan u međuratnom periodu, u kojem su kompozitori nastojali da se vrate estetskim propisima povezanim sa široko definisanim konceptom „klasicizma“, odnosno redu, ravnoteži, jasnoći, ekonomičnosti i emocionalnoj uzdržanosti. Kao takav, neoklasicizam je bio reakcija protiv neobuzdanog emocionalizma i opažene bezobličnosti kasnog romantizma, kao i „poziv na red“ nakon eksperimentalnog vrenja u prve dve decenije dvadesetog veka. Neoklasični impuls pronašao je svoj izraz u karakteristikama kao što su upotreba smanjenih izvođačkih snaga, naglasak na ritmu i kontrapunktnoj teksturi, ažurirani ili prošireni tonski sklad i koncentracija na apsolutnoj muzici za razliku od romantičarske programske muzike.

U formi i tematskim tehnikama, neoklasična muzika je inspiraciju često crpela iz muzike 18. veka, mada je nadahnjujući kanon jednako često pripadao baroku, pa čak i ranijim periodima, kao i klasičnom periodu - iz tog razloga, muzika koja inspiraciju crpi upravo iz baroka se ponekad naziva neobaroknom muzikom. Neoklasicizam je imao dve različite nacionalne linije razvoja, francusku (koja je delimično proizašla iz uticaja Erika Satija, a predstavljao ju je Igor Stravinski, koji je zapravo bio ruskog porekla), i nemačku (koja je proizišla iz „nove objektivnostiFeručija Busonija, koji je zapravo Italijan, a zastupao ju je Paul Hindemit). Neoklasicizam je bio više estetski trend nego organizovani pokret; čak i mnogi kompozitori za koje se obično ne misli da su „neoklasicisti“, apsorbovali su elemente stila.

Ljudi i dela[уреди | уреди извор]

Iako se izraz „neoklasicizam“ odnosi na pokret 20. veka, postojali su važni prethodnici u 19. veku. U komadima kao što su Franc Listov À la Chapelle Sixtine (1862), Edvard Grigova Holbergova Svita (1884), Petra Iljiča Čajkovskova divertifikacija iz Pikove dame (1890), Žorž Eneskuova Klavirska suita u starom stilu (1897) i Maks Regerov Končerto u starom stilu (1912), kompozitori su „oblačili svoju muziku u staru odeću kako bi stvorili nasmejanu ili zamišljenu evokaciju prošlosti“.[1]

Simfonija br. 1 (1917) Sergeja Prokofjeva ponekad se navodi kao preteča neoklasicizma.[2] Sam Prokofjev smatrao je da je njegova kompozicija „prolazna faza“, dok je neoklasicizam Stravinskog 20-ih godina „postao osnovna linija njegove muzike“.[3] Rihard Štraus je takođe uneo neoklasične elemente u svoju muziku, posebno u svojoj orkestralnoj sviti Le bourgeois gentilhomme Op. 60, napisanoj u ranoj verziji 1911. i konačnoj verziji 1917.[4]

Otorino Respigi je takođe bio jedan od preteča neoklasicizma sa svojom delom Ancient Airs and Dances svita No. 1, komponovanom 1917. godine. Umesto da deluje po uzoru na muzičke forme 18. veka, Respigi, koji je, pored toga što je bio poznati kompozitor i dirigent bio je i zapaženi muzikolog, ugledao se na italijansku muziku 16. i 17. veka. Njegov kolega savremeni kompozitor Đan Frančesko Malipjero, takođe muzikolog, sastavio je kompletno izdanje dela Klaudija Monteverdija. Malipjerov odnos sa drevnom italijanskom muzikom nije imao za cilj samo oživljavanje antičkih formi u okviru „povratka u red“, već pokušaj oživljavanja pristupa kompoziciji koji bi kompozitoru omogućio da se oslobodi ograničenja sonatnog oblik i prekomerno iskorišćenih mehanizama tematskog razvoja.[5][6]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

Literatura[уреди | уреди извор]

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