Novi imperijalizam

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије

U istorijskom kontekstu, novi imperijalizam karakteriše period kolonijalne ekspanzije evropskih sila, Sjedinjenih Država i Japana tokom kraja 19. i početka 20. veka.[1] Tokom ovog razdoblja je došlo do neviđene potrage za prekomorskim teritorijalnim akvizicijama. U to vreme su se države fokusirale na izgradnju svojih carstava novim tehnološkim napretkom i razvojem, te na proširivanje svoje teritorije osvajanjem i iskorištavanje resursa potčinjenih država. Tokom ere novog imperijalizma, zapadne sile (i Japan) pojedinačno su osvojile gotovo celu Afriku i delove Azije. Novi talas imperijalizma odražavao je stalna rivalstva velikih sila, ekonomsku želju za novim resursima i tržištima i etos „civilizacijske misije”. Mnoge kolonije uspostavljene tokom ove ere stekle su nezavisnost u doba dekolonizacije koja je usledila posle Drugog svetskog rata.

Kvalifikator „novo” koristi se za razlikovanje modernog imperijalizma od ranijih imperijalnih aktivnosti, poput takozvanog prvog talasa evropske kolonizacije između 1402. i 1815.[1][2] U prvom talasu kolonizacije evropske sile su osvojile i kolonizovale Ameriku i Sibir; kasnije su osnovali više ispostava u Africi i Aziji.

Uspon[уреди | уреди извор]

Uljana slika delegata na Bečkom kongresu.
Bečki kongres na slici Žan-Batiste Izabeja (1819). Kongres je zapravo bio serija sastanaka licem u lice između kolonijalnih sila. Služio je za podelu i ponovno prisvajanje carskih poseda.

Američki revolucionarni rat (1775–83) i kolaps Španskog carstva u Latinskoj Americi 1820-ih okončali su prvu eru evropskog imperijalizma. Posebno u Velikoj Britaniji ove revolucije su pomogle da se pokažu nedostaci merkantilizma, doktrine ekonomske konkurencije za ograničeno bogatstvo koja je podržavala raniju imperijsku ekspanziju. Godine 1846, Zakoni o kukuruzu su ukinuti i proizvođači su rasli, pošto su propisi nametnuti Zakonima o kukuruzu usporili njihovo poslovanje. Sa ukidanjem, proizvođači su mogli slobodnije da trguju. Tako je Britanija počela da usvaja koncept slobodne trgovine.[3]

Tokom ovog perioda, između Bečkog kongresa 1815. nakon poraza Napoleonove Francuske i pobede carske Nemačke u Francusko-pruskom ratu 1871. godine, Velika Britanija je požnjela prednosti svoje dominantne vojne i ekonomske sile u Evropi. Kao „svetska radionica“, Britanija je mogla da proizvodi gotovu robu tako efikasno da je obično mogla da proda uporedivu, lokalno proizvedenu robu na stranim tržištima, snabdevajući veliki deo proizvedene robe koju konzumiraju takve nacije kao što su nemačke države, Francuska, Belgija, i Sjedinjenih Država.[4]

Erozija britanske hegemonije nakon Francusko-pruskog rata, u kojoj je koalicija nemačkih država predvođena Pruskom snažno porazila Drugo francusko carstvo, bila je izazvana promenama u evropskoj i svetskoj ekonomiji i u kontinentalnom odnosu snaga nakon sloma Evropskog koncerta, ustanovljenog od strane Bečkog kongresa. Osnivanje nacionalnih država u Nemačkoj i Italiji rešilo je teritorijalna pitanja zbog kojih su potencijalni rivali bili upleteni u unutrašnje stvari u srcu Evrope u korist Britanije. Godine od 1871. do 1914. bile su obeležene krajnje nestabilnim mirom. Odlučnost Francuske da povrati Alzas-Lorenu, koju je aneksirala Nemačka kao rezultat Francusko-pruskog rata, i rastuće imperijalističke ambicije Nemačke će ove dve nacije održavati u stalnom stanju spremnosti za sukob.[5]

Ova konkurencija je zaoštrena dugom depresijom 1873–1896, produženim periodom deflacije cena isprekidanim ozbiljnim padom poslovanja, koji je izvršio pritisak na vlade da promovišu domaću industriju, što je dovelo do široko rasprostranjenog napuštanja slobodne trgovine među evropskim silama (u Nemačkoj od 1879. i u Francuskoj od 1881).[6][7]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ а б Louis, William Roger (2006). „32: Robinson and Gallagher and Their Critics”. Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization. London: I.B.Tauris. стр. 910. ISBN 9781845113476. Приступљено 2017-08-10. „[...] the concept of the 'new imperialism' espoused by such diverse writers as John A. Hobson, V. I. Lenin, Leonard Woolf, Parker T, Moon, Robert L. Schuyler, and William L. Langer. Those students of imperialism, whatever their purpose in writing, all saw a fundamental difference between the imperialist impulses of the mid- and late-Victorian eras. Langer perhaps best summarized the importance of making the distinction of late-nineteenth-century imperialism when he wrote in 1935: '[...] this period will stand out as the crucial epoch during which the nations of the western world extended their political, economic and cultural influence over Africa and over large parts of Asia ... in the larger sense the story is more than the story of rivalry between European imperialisms; it is the story of European aggression and advance in the non-European parts of the world.' 
  2. ^ Gilmartin, Mary (2009). „9: Colonialism/imperialism”. Ур.: Gallaher, Carolyn; Dahlman, Carl T.; Gilmartin, Mary; Mountz, Alison; Shirlow, Peter. Key Concepts in Political Geography. Key Concepts in Human Geography. London: SAGE. стр. 115. ISBN 9781446243541. Приступљено 2017-08-09. „Commentators have identified three broad waves of European colonial and imperial expansion, connected with specific territories. The first targeted the Americas, North and South, as well as the Caribbean. The second focused on Asia, while the third wave extended European control into Africa. 
  3. ^ „Corn Law”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 10. 11. 2010. 
  4. ^ Nadel, George H. and Curtis, Perry (1969). Imperialism and Colonialism. Macmillan. 
  5. ^ „Franco-German War”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 10. 11. 2010. 
  6. ^ Kindleberger, C. P., (1961), "Foreign Trade and Economic Growth: Lessons from Britain and France, 1850-1913", The Economic History Review, Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 289–305.
  7. ^ Porter, B., (1996), The Lion's Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850-1995, (London: Longman), pp. 118ff.

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  • Dugdale, E.T.S. ed. German Diplomatic Documents 1871–1914 (4 vol 1928–1931), in English translation. online
  • Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire (1964) Eyck, Erich (1968). Bismarck and the German Empire. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393002357. . excerpt and text search
  • Geiss, Imanuel. German Foreign Policy, 1871–1914 (1979) Geiss (20. 10. 2010). Germ Foreign Pol 1871-1914 V9. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415606356. . excerpt
  • Hewitson, Mark. "Germany and France before the First World War: a reassessment of Wilhelmine foreign policy." English Historical Review 115.462 (2000): 570–606; argues Germany had a growing sense of military superiority
  • Holborn, Hajo. A History of Modern Germany (1959–64); vol 1: The Reformation; vol 2: 1648–1840; vol 3: 1840–1945; standard scholarly survey
  • Hoyer, Katja. Blood and Iron: The Rise and Fall of the German Empire 1871-1918 (2021)
  • Kennedy, Paul. (1980). The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism 1860–1914. ISBN 9780049400603. 
  • Lowe, John. The Great Powers, imperialism and the German problem 1865-1925 (Routledge, 2013). Lowe, John (19. 1. 2017). The Great Powers, Imperialism and the German Problem 1865-1925. Routledge. ISBN 978-1138160682. . excerpt
  • Maehl, William Harvey. Germany in Western Civilization (1979), 833pp; focus on politics and diplomacy.
  • Medlicott, William Norton, and Dorothy Kathleen Coveney, eds. Bismarck and Europe (Hodder Arnold, 1971), 110 short excerpts from, primary sources covering his diplomatic career. Bismarck and Europe. 1971. 
  • Mitchell, A. Wess The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire (Princeton UP, 2018).
  • Mitchell, Pearl Boring. The Bismarckian Policy of Conciliation with France, 1875-1885 (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).
  • Morrow, Ian F. D. "The Foreign Policy of Prince Von Bulow, 1898-1909." Cambridge Historical Journal 4#1 (1932): 63–93. online
  • Padfield, Peter. The Great Naval Race: Anglo-German Naval Rivalry 1900–1914 (2005)
  • Palmer, Alan. Metternich: Councillor of Europe (1972)
  • Palmer, Alan. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph (1995)
  • Palmer, Alan. Bismarck (2015)
  • Scheck, Raffael. "Lecture Notes, Germany and Europe, 1871–1945" (2008) full text online, a brief textbook by a leading scholar
  • Schmitt, Bernadotte Everly. (1916). England and Germany, 1740–1914. Princeton: Princeton University Press; [etc., etc.] 
  • Sheehan, James J. German History, 1770–1866 (1993), a major scholarly survey
  • Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011), most recent scholarly biography
  • Stürmer, Michael. "Bismarck in Perspective," Central European History (1971) 4#4 pp. 291–331 in JSTOR
  • Taylor, A.J.P. Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman (1967)
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Course of German History: A Survey of the Development of German History since 1815. (2001). 280pp.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. (1948). The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918. 
  • Wawro, Geoffrey. A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Hapsburg Empire (2014)
  • Forbes, Nevill, et al. The Balkans: a history of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey (1915) summary histories by scholars The Balkans : A history of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey. 1915. 
  • Fuller, William C. Strategy and Power in Russia 1600–1914 (1998)
  • Hall, Richard C. ed. War in the Balkans: An Encyclopedic History from the Fall of the Ottoman Empire to the Breakup of Yugoslavia (2014)
  • Jelavich, Barbara. St. Petersburg and Moscow: tsarist and Soviet foreign policy, 1814–1974 (1974); 1st edition was A Century of Russian Foreign Policy 1814–1914 (1964)
  • Jelavich, Charles, and Barbara Jelavich. (1977). The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804–1920. ISBN 9780295954448. 
  • LeDonne, John P. The Russian Empire and the World, 1700–1917: The Geopolitics of Expansion and Containment (Oxford UP, 1997)
  • McMeekin, Sean. The Russian Origins of the First World War (2011) McMeekin, Sean (14. 11. 2011). The Russian Origins of the First World War. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674062108. . excerpt and text search
  • Marriott, J. A. R. (1917). The Eastern question; an historical study in European diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Neumann, Iver B. "Russia as a great power, 1815–2007." Journal of International Relations and Development 11.2 (2008): 128–151. online
  • Nish, Ian Hill. The origins of the Russo-Japanese war (1985)
  • Ragsdale, Hugh, and Valeri Nikolaevich Ponomarev eds. Imperial Russian Foreign Policy (Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1993) Ragsdale, Hugh; Ponomarev, V. N. (29. 10. 1993). Imperial Russian Foreign Policy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052144229X. . excerpt and text search
  • Reynolds, Michael. Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908–1918 (2011) online review
  • Schevill, Ferdinand. (1922). The history of the Balkan Peninsula; from the earliest times to the present day. New York Harcourt: Brace. 
  • Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Russian Empire 1801–1917 (1967) Seton-Watson, Hugh (1988). The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198221525. . excerpt and text search
  • Stavrianos, L.S. The Balkans Since 1453 (1958), major scholarly history; Stavrianos, L. S. (2000). The Balkans since 1453. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814797662. 
  • Sumner, B. H. Russia and the Balkans 1870-1880 (1937)
  • Andrei Zayonchkovski Подготовка России к мировой войне в международном отношении; Штаб РККА, Упр. по исслед. и использованию опыта войн; Предисл. и под ред. М. П. Павловича. — [Л.]: Ленинград: Воен. тип. Упр. делами Наркомвоенмор и РВС СССР, 1926. — 398 с.
  • Beisner, Robert L. ed, American Foreign Relations since 1600: A Guide to the Literature (2003), 2 vol. 16,300 annotated entries evaluate every major book and scholarly article.
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A short history of American foreign policy and diplomacy (1959) online free
  • Brune, Lester H. Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations (2003), 1400 pages
  • DeConde, Alexander, et al. eds. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy 3 vol (2001), 2200 pp. 120 long articles by specialists. Online
  • DeConde, Alexander. (1963). A History of American Foreign Policy. 
  • Doyle, Don H. The cause of all nations: an international history of the American Civil War (Basic Books, 2014).
  • Findling, John, ed. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History 2nd ed. 1989. 700pp; 1200 short articles.
  • Herring, George. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (Oxford History of the United States) (2008), 1056pp, general survey
  • Hogan, Michael J. ed. Paths to Power: The Historiography of American Foreign Relations to 1941 (2000) essays on main topics
  • Jones, Howard. (2001). Crucible of power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897. SR Books. ISBN 9780842029186. 
  • Jones, Howard (2010). Blue & Gray Diplomacy: A History of Union and Confederate Foreign Relations. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807833490. 
  • Lafeber, Walter. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad, 1750 to Present (2nd ed 1994) university textbook; 884pp
  • Paterson, Thomas, et al. American Foreign Relations: A History (7th ed. 2 vol. 2009), university textbook
  • Sexton, Jay. "Toward a synthesis of foreign relations in the Civil War era, 1848–77." American Nineteenth Century History 5.3 (2004): 50–73.
  • Sexton, Jay. Debtor Diplomacy: Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era, 1837-1873 (Clarendon Press, 2005). The USA borrowed money in Paris.
  • Akagi, Roy Hidemichi. (1936). Japan's Foreign Relations 1542–1936: A Short History.  560pp
  • Beasley, William G. Japanese Imperialism, 1894–1945 (Oxford UP, 1987)
  • Hsü, Immanuel C.Y. China's Entrance into the Family of Nations: The Diplomatic Phase, 1858–1880 (1960)
  • Jansen, Marius B. ed. The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 5: The Nineteenth Century (1989)
  • Kibata, Y. and I. Nish, eds. The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600–2000: Volume I: The Political-Diplomatic Dimension, 1600–1930 (2000) The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. ISBN 0333753879. . excerpt, first of five topical volumes also covering social, economic and military relations between Japan and Great Britain.
  • Morse, Hosea Ballou. The international relations of the Chinese empire Vol. 1 (1910), coverage to 1859; The international relations of the Chinese empire. 1900. ; The international relations of the Chinese empire vol 2 1861–1893 International relations of the Chinese empire. New York: distributed by Paragon Book Gallery. 1918. ; The international relations of the Chinese empire vol 3 1894–1916. International relations of the Chinese empire. New York: distributed by Paragon Book Gallery. 1918. 
  • Nish, Ian. (1990) "An Overview of Relations between China and Japan, 1895–1945." China Quarterly (1990) 124 (1990): 601–623. online
  • Nish, Ian. Japanese Foreign Policy, 1869–1942: Kasumigaseki to Miyakezaka (2001)
  • Nish, Ian Hill. The origins of the Russo-Japanese war (1985)
  • Takeuchi, Tatsuji. (1935). War And Diplomacy In The Japanese Empire. ; scholarly coverage
  • Bosworth, Richard. Italy: The Least of the Great Powers: Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War (1979)
  • Hale, William. Turkish Foreign Policy, 1774–2000. (2000). 375 pp.
  • Lowe, C. J. and F. Marzari. Italian Foreign Policy, 1870–1940 (2001)
  • Miller, William. The Ottoman Empire and its successors, 1801-1922 (2nd ed 1927) The Ottoman Empire and its successors, 1801-1922. Being a rev. And enl. Ed. of the Ottoman Empire, 1801-1913. 1923. , strong on foreign policy
  • Bourne, Kenneth. The foreign policy of Victorian England, 1830–1902 (Oxford UP, 1970.) pp. 195–504 are 147 selected documents
  • Cooke, W. Henry, and Edith P. Stickney, eds. Readings in European International Relations Since 1879 (1931) 1060 pp Readings in European international relations since 1879. 1931. 
  • Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations of European Diplomacy (1940); 475 pp detailed summaries of memoirs from all the major belligerents; Recent revelations of European diplomacy. 1928. 
  • Joll, James, ed. Britain and Europe 1793–1940 (1967); 390 pp of documents
  • Jones, Edgar Rees, ed. Selected speeches on British foreign policy, 1738–1914 (1914). Amazon https://www.amazon.com/Selected-Speeches-British-Foreign-1738-1914-ebook/dp/B008400H7O/.  Недостаје или је празан параметар |title= (помоћ). online free
  • Kertesz, G.A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815–1939 (1968), pp. 1–385; 200 short documents
  • Lowe, C.J. The reluctant imperialists: vol 2: The Documents (1967), 140 documents 1878–1902. (American edition 1969 vol 1 and 2 bound together).
  • Lowe, C.J. and M.L. Dockrill, eds. The Mirage of Power: Volume 3: The Documents British Foreign Policy, 1902–22. (1972), 191 documents.
  • Temperley, Harold and L.M. Penson, eds. (1938). Foundations of British Foreign Policy: From Pitt (1792) to Salisbury (1902). , 608 pp of primary sources
  • Walker, Mack. ed. Metternich's Europe, 1813–48 (1968) 352 pp of primary sources in English translation excerpt

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