Osvajanje Afrike

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Karikatura Cecila Rodesa nakon objavljivanja plana za uspostavljanje telegrafske linije između Kejptauna i Kaira

Osvajanje Afrike (engl. Scramble for Africa) (Trka za Afriku) je proces kolonijalne ekspanzije[1][2] kojim su u drugoj polovini 19. veka zapadnoevropske sile ustanovile svoju vlast nad gotovo celokupnim afričkim kontinentom. Osvajanje Afrike rezultovalo je okupacijama i aneksijama afričkih teritorija od strane evropskih sila tokom perioda Novog Imperijalizma i to između 1880. i 1914. godine. Berlinska konferencija 1884. godine,.[3][4][5] koja je regulisala evropsku kolonizaciju i trgovinu u Africi, obično se naziva polazištem borbe za Afriku.[6][7] U poslednjoj četvrtini 19. veka među evropskim carstvima postojalo je značajno političko rivalstvo. Podela Afrike izvršena je bez ratova među evropskim narodima.[8] Rezultat zategnutih odnosa između evropskih sila na kraju 19. veka i podela Afrike mogu da se sagledavaju kao pokušaj eliminisanja pretnje većih sukoba na tlu Evrope.[9] U zadnjim decenijama 19. veka došlo je do tranzicije od „neformalnog imperijalizma“ kontrole vojnom moći i ekonomskom dominacijom do direktne vladavine, čime se ušlo u eru kolonijalnog imperijalizma.[10]

Počeci[уреди | уреди извор]

Iako su evropske sile, počevši s Portugalom, utemeljile svoja prva uporišta na obalama Afrike još u 15. veku, ekspanzija u unutrašnjost bila je ograničena zbog celog niza klimatskih, političkih i vojnih razloga. Kolonizatori, za razliku od afričkih domorodaca, nisu razvili imunitet na razne tropske bolesti, odnosno nisu raspolagali dovoljnim snagama za suzbijanje svakog iole jačeg otpora domorodačkih plemena i država. Umesto toga kontrola nad afričkim obalama vršena je posredno, uz pomoć obalnih tvrđava i mornaricom, odnosno saradnjom s prijateljski raspoloženim plemenima i državama kojima su oružje i druga zapadna roba davali prednost u odnosu na suparnike. Unutrašnjost kontinenta ostala je neistražena.

Industrijska revolucija[уреди | уреди извор]

Tek je industrijska revolucija, a s njom razvitak modernog oružja i medicine omogućio prvo zapadnim istraživačima, potom misionarima, a na kraju i vojskama prodor u unutrašnjost afričkog kontinenta. Otkriće prostranih teritorija, velikih prirodnih bogatstava i stanovništva koje je bilo relativno lako pokoriti dalo je veliki podsticaj ekspanziji, osobito državama koje su u statusu zaostajale za Britanskim kraljevstvom i koje je mamila mogućnost stvaranja velikog tržišta za proizvode domaće industrije. Taj je proces još u prvoj polovini 19. veka započela Francuska osvajanjem Alžira, iz čega se nastavilo širenje prema jugu kontinenta.

Područja koja su kontrolisali Evropljani 1914. godine

Uključivanje Nemačke, Italije i Belgije[уреди | уреди извор]

U drugoj polovini 19. veka agresivno su širenje započele novoujedinjene države Nemačka, Italija i Belgija. To je s vremenom nateralo Britance, zabrinute za svoja dotadašnja uporišta u Južnoj Africi i moguće ugrožavanje strateških pomorskih putova prema Indiji, da takođe započnu s ubrzanom ekspanzijom, što je godine 1898. dovelo do spora s Francuskom koji je umalo izazvao rat. Strah da bi burske republike mogle potpasti pod nemački uticaj doveo je do burskog rata čime je formalno završeno osvajanje Afrike.

Time se celokupna afrička teritorija našla pod kontrolom zapadnih država, uz izuzetak Etiopije, koja će svoju nezavisnost izgubiti tek nakon abesinijskog rata 1935-36. godine, i Liberije.

Posledice[уреди | уреди извор]

Nezadovoljstvo Nemačke, a manjim delom i Italije, rezultatima osvajanja Afrike bilo je jednim od glavnih uzroka Prvog, a kasnije i Drugog svetskog rata.

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ „White Men on the Dark Continent; Lamar Middleton's "The Rape of Africa" Is a Study of the Past Sixty Years of European Expansion There THE RAPE OF AFRICA. By Lamar Middleton. 331 pp. New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas.”. timesmachine.nytimes.com (на језику: енглески). Приступљено 2020-12-09. 
  2. ^ Hodges, Norman E. (1972). „Neo-Colonialism: The New Rape of Africa”. Journal of Black Studies and Research. 3 (5): 12—23. doi:10.1080/00064246.1972.11431211. Приступљено 6. 4. 2021. 
  3. ^ Katzenellenbogen, S. (1996). „It didn't happen at Berlin: Politics, economics and ignorance in the setting of Africa's colonial boundaries.”. Ур.: Nugent, P.; Asiwaju, A. I. African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities. London: Pinter. стр. 21—34. 
  4. ^ Craven, M. (2015). „Between law and history: the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 and the logic of free trade”. London Review of International Law. 3: 31—59. doi:10.1093/lril/lrv002Слободан приступ. 
  5. ^ Crowe, S.E. (1942). The Berlin West African Conference, 1884–1885. London: Longmans Green. 
  6. ^ Brantlinger, Patrick (1985). „Victorians and Africans: The Genealogy of the Myth of the Dark Continent”. Critical Inquiry. 12 (1): 166—203. JSTOR 1343467. S2CID 161311164. doi:10.1086/448326. 
  7. ^ Ajala, Adekunle (1983). „The Nature of African Boundaries”. Africa Spectrum. Institute of African Affairs at GIGA, Hamburg. 18 (2): 177—189. JSTOR 40174114. »Kwame Nkrumah once made the point that the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was responsible for "the old carve-up of Africa". Other writers have also laid the blame for "the partition of Africa" on the doors of the Berlin Conference. But Wm. Roger Louis holds a contrary view, although he conceded that "the Berlin Act did have a relevance to the course of the partition" of Africa.« 
  8. ^ R. Robinson, J. Gallagher and A. Denny, Africa and the Victorians, London, 1965, p. 175.
  9. ^ R, Robinson, J.Gallagher and A. Denny, Africa and the Victorians, London, 1965, Page. 175.
  10. ^ Kevin Shillington, History of Africa: Revised Second Edition, (New York: Macmillian Publishers Limited, 2005), 301

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