Princip ekvivalentnosti

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U Opštoj teoriji relativnosti princip ekvivalentnosti primenjen je na nekoliko povezanih koncepata koji imaju posla sa gravitacijom i uniformnošću merenja izvršenim u fizičkim eksperimentima koji se dešavaju u različitim sistemima referencije. On je u vezi i sa Kopernikovom idejom da zakoni fizike treba da budu isti svuda u svemiru, ali, pre svega, povezan je sa Ajnštajnovim zapažanjem da je gravitacionu silu koju opažamo kada stojimo na nekom masivnom telu (kao što je Zemlja), lokalno posmatrano, nemoguće razlikovati od inercijalne sile koju bi opažao posmatrač u neinercijalnom-ubrzanom sistemu, na primer, u nekoj kabini koja bi bila ubrzana u oblasti prostora koja je daleko od uticaja gravitacionog polja drugih tela. Takođe, ovakva jedna mogućnost u tesnoj je vezi i sa ekvivalentnošću gravitacione i inercijalne mase tela, koja je bila poznata još od ranije, ali bez većeg značaja za fiziku sve do nastanka Ajnštajnove Opšte teorije relativnosti.[1][2]

Istorija[уреди]

Poreklo Ajnštajnovog principa ekvivalentnosti, moglo bi se reći, započinje sa Galilejevim čuvenim eksperimentima izvršenim krajem 16. i početkom 17. veka. Ovi eksperimenti pokazali su da je gravitaciono ubrzanje tela nezavisno od njihove mase. Time je bio odbačen Aristotelov koncept po kome teža tela padaju brže od lakših. Definitivan udarac ovom Aristotelovom mišljenju, koje je bilo na snazi oko 20 vekova, zadao je Njutnov zakon opšte gravitacije kojim je postulirano da su inercijalna i gravitaciona masa tela potpuno iste.

Princip ekvivalentnosti na pravi način će uvesti u fiziku, međutim, Albert Ajnštajn, 1907. godine. On je tada izneo zapažanje da je ubrzavanje tela ka centru Zemlje sa ubrzanjem g (g = 9.81 m/s2-ubrzanje Zemljine teže) potpuno ekvivalentno inercijalnom ubrzavanju pokretnog tela koje bi se moglo opaziti kada bi se nalazili u nekoj raketi u slobodnom prostoru, koja se ubrzava takođe sa ubrzanjem g. Ajnštajn to formuliše na sledeći način:

mi [...] pretpostavljamo potpunu fizičku ekvivalentnost gravitacionog polja i odgovarajućeg ubrzavanja referentnog sistema. (Ajnštajn, 1907)

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Einstein, Albert, How I Constructed the Theory of Relativity, translated by Masahiro Morikawa from the text recorded in Japanese by Jun Ishiwara, Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies (AAPPS) Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 17–19, April 2005. Einstein recalls events of 1907 in a talk in Japan on 14 December 1922.
  2. ^ Einstein, Albert (2003). The Meaning of Relativity. Routledge. стр. 59. ISBN 9781134449798. 

Literatura[уреди]

  • Dicke, Robert H.; "New Research on Old Gravitation", Science 129, 3349 (1959). This paper is the first to make the distinction between the strong and weak equivalence principles.
  • Dicke, Robert H.; "Mach's Principle and Equivalence", in Evidence for gravitational theories: proceedings of course 20 of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", ed. C. Møller (Academic Press, New York, 1962). This article outlines the approach to precisely testing general relativity advocated by Dicke and pursued from 1959 onwards.
  • Einstein, Albert; "Über das Relativitätsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogene Folgerungen", Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitaet und Elektronik 4 (1907); translated "On the relativity principle and the conclusions drawn from it", in The collected papers of Albert Einstein. Vol. 2 : The Swiss years: writings, 1900–1909 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1989), Anna Beck translator. This is Einstein's first statement of the equivalence principle.
  • Einstein, Albert; "Über den Einfluß der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes", Annalen der Physik 35 translated "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" in The collected papers of Albert Einstein. Vol. 3 : The Swiss years: writings, 1909–1911 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1994), Anna Beck translator, and in The Principle of Relativity, (Dover, 1924), pp. 99–108, W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery translators. 1911. ISBN 978-0-486-60081-9.. The two Einstein papers are discussed online at The Genesis of General Relativity.
  • Brans, Carl H.; "The roots of scalar-tensor theory: an approximate history", arXiv:gr-qc/0506063. Discusses the history of attempts to construct gravity theories with a scalar field and the relation to the equivalence principle and Mach's principle.
  • Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; and Wheeler, John A.; Gravitation, New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1973, Chapter 16 discusses the equivalence principle.
  • Ohanian, Hans; and Ruffini, Remo; Gravitation and Spacetime 2nd edition, New York:. Norton.1994. ISBN 978-0-393-96501-8. Chapter 1 discusses the equivalence principle, but incorrectly, according to modern usage, states that the strong equivalence principle is wrong.
  • Uzan, Jean-Philippe; "The fundamental constants and their variation: Observational status and theoretical motivations", Reviews of Modern Physics 75, 403 (2003). arXiv:hep-ph/0205340 This technical article reviews the best constraints on the variation of the fundamental constants.
  • Will, Clifford M.; Theory and experiment in gravitational physics, Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.1993.. This is the standard technical reference for tests of general relativity.
  • Will, Clifford M.; Was Einstein Right?: Putting General Relativity to the Test, Basic Books (1993). This is a popular account of tests of general relativity.
  • Will, Clifford M.; The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment, Living Reviews in Relativity (2006). An online, technical review, covering much of the material in Theory and experiment in gravitational physics. The Einstein and strong variants of the equivalence principles are discussed in sections 2.1 and 3.1, respectively.
  • Friedman, Michael; Foundations of Space-Time Theories, Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University Press.1983.. Chapter V discusses the equivalence principle.
  • Ghins, Michel; Budden, Tim (2001), „The Principle of Equivalence”, Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys., 32 (1): 33—51 
  • Ohanian, Hans C. (1977), „What is the Principle of Equivalence?”, American Journal of Physics, 45 (10): 903—909, Bibcode:1977AmJPh..45..903O, doi:10.1119/1.10744 
  • Di Casola, E.; Liberati, S.; Sonego, S. (2015), „Nonequivalence of equivalence principles”, American Journal of Physics, 83 (1): 39, Bibcode:2015AmJPh..83...39D, arXiv:1310.7426Слободан приступ, doi:10.1119/1.4895342 

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