Saka

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Paradni oklop u stilu katafrakta pripadnika kraljevske porodice, takođe poznatog kao „Zlatni ratnik”, iz Isik kurgana, istorijske grobnice u blizini bivšeg prestoničkog grada Almati, Kazahstan. Oko 400-200 pne.[1]

Saka, šaka ili sake (staropersijski: Sakā; brahmanski: Gupta allahabad sh.svgGupta allahabad k.svg Śaka, sanskritski: शक, Śaka; starogrčki: Σάκαι, Sákai; latinski: Sacae; kineski: , staro *Sək, mod. Sāi, egipatski: 𓐠𓎼𓋴𓎡𓈙/sꜣgskš) bili su grupe nomadskih iranskih naroda koji su istorijski naseljavali severne i istočne Evroazijske stepe i Tarimske kotline.[2][3]

Mada su usko povezani, Sake treba razlikovati od Skita iz Pontijskih stepa i Masageta iz oblasti Aralskog mora.[3][4][5] Oni čine deo širih skitskih kultura.[6] Kao i Skiti, Saka su ultimatlo proistekli iz ranije andronovske kulture. Njihov jezik bio je deo skitskih jezika. Istaknuti arheološki ostaci Saka uključuju Arzhan, Paziričke grobnice, Isik kurgan, Saka Kurganske grobnice, humke iz Tasmola i eventualno Tilija Tepe.

U 2. veku pne, mnogi pripadnici naroda Sake su usled napada Juedža prebegli iz stepa u Sogdiju i Baktriju, a zatim na severozapad Indijskog potkontinenta, gde su bili poznati kao Indo-Skiti.[7][8][9] Drugi pripadnici naroda Saka su napali Partsko carstvo i na kraju su se nastanili u Sistanu, dok su drugi verovatno prešli u Dijan Kraljevstvo u Junanu u Kini. U Tarimskoj kotlini i pustinji Takla Makan severozapadne Kine, oni su se naselili u Kotanu, Jarkandu, Kašgaru i drugim mestima, koja su u raznim vremenima bila vazalna većim silama, poput Han Kine i Tang Kine.[10]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Chang, Claudia (2017). Rethinking Prehistoric Central Asia: Shepherds, Farmers, and Nomads (на језику: енглески). Routledge. стр. 72. ISBN 9781351701587. 
  2. ^ Beckwith 2009, стр. 68 "Modern scholars have mostly used the name Saka to refer to Iranians of the Eastern Steppe and Tarim Basin"
  3. 3,0 3,1 Dandamayev 1994, стр. 37 "In modern scholarship the name 'Sakas' is reserved for the ancient tribes of northern and eastern Central Asia and Eastern Turkestan to distinguish them from the related Massagetae of the Aral region and the Scythians of the Pontic steppes. These tribes spoke Iranian languages, and their chief occupation was nomadic pastoralism."
  4. ^ Kramrisch, Stella. „Central Asian Arts: Nomadic Cultures”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Приступљено 1. 9. 2018. »The Śaka tribe was pasturing its herds in the Pamirs, central Tien Shan, and in the Amu Darya delta. Their gold belt buckles, jewelry, and harness decorations display sheep, griffins, and other animal designs that are similar in style to those used by the Scythians, a nomadic people living in the Kuban basin of the Caucasus region and the western section of the Eurasian plain during the greater part of the 1st millennium bc.« 
  5. ^ Bruno & David 2018 "Horse-riding nomadism has been referred to as the culture of 'Early Nomads'. This term encompasses different ethnic groups (such as Scythians, Saka, Massagetae, and Yuezhi)..."
  6. ^ Unterländer, Martina (3. 3. 2017). „Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe”. Nature Communications. 8: 14615. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814615U. PMC 5337992Слободан приступ. PMID 28256537. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. »During the first millennium BCE, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin... Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture...« 
  7. ^ Benjamin, Craig (mart 2003). „The Yuezhi Migration and Sogdia”. Ērān ud Anērān Webfestschrift Marshak. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 18. 02. 2015. Приступљено 1. 3. 2015. 
  8. ^ „Chinese History – Sai 塞 The Saka People or Soghdians”. Chinaknowledge. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 19. 1. 2015. Приступљено 1. 3. 2015. 
  9. ^ Beckwith 2009, стр. 85 "The Saka, or Śaka, people then began their long migration that ended with their conquest of northern India, where they are also known as the Indo-Scythians."
  10. ^ Sinor 1990, стр. 173–174

Literatura[уреди | уреди извор]

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