Snimanje i reprodukcija zvuka

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Пређи на навигацију Пређи на претрагу
Frenses Densmor snima blekfutskog Planinskog poglavicu na cilindarskom fonografu za Biro američke etnologija (1916)

Snimanje i reprodukcija zvuka je električni, mehanički, elektronski ili digitalni zapis i ponovno stvaranje zvučnih talasa, kao što su govorni glas, pevanje, instrumentalna muzika ili zvučni efekti.[1] Dve glavne klase tehnologije za snimanje zvuka su analogno snimanje i digitalno snimanje.

Akustično analogno snimanje postiže se mikrofonskom dijafragmom koja registruje promene atmosferskog pritiska izazvane akustičkim zvučnim talasima i beleži ih kao mehanički prikaz zvučnih talasa na medijumu poput fonografskog snimka (u kojem igla useca brazde na snimku). Kod snimanja magnetnom trakom zvučni talasi vibriraju dijafragmu mikrofona i pretvaraju se u promenljivu električnu struju, koja se elektromagnetom pretvara u promenljivo magnetno polje, što omogućava prikaz zvuka kao magnetizovanih područja na plastičnoj traci sa magnetnim premazom na sebi. Analogna reprodukcija zvuka je obrnuti proces, sa većom membranom zvučnika koja uzrokuje promene atmosferskog pritiska radi formiranja akustičnih zvučnih talasa.

Digitalno snimanje i reprodukcija pretvara analogni zvučni signal koji mikrofon prihvata u digitalni oblik procesom uzorkovanja. Ovo omogućava da se audio podaci sačuvaju i prenose putem širokog spektra medija. Digitalno snimanje čuva audio kao niz binarnih brojeva (nula i jedinica) koji predstavljaju uzorke amplitude audio signala u jednakim vremenskim intervalima, sa dovoljnom brzinom uzorkovanja da se prenesu svi zvukovi koji se mogu čuti. Digitalni audio signal mora biti pretvoren u analogni oblik tokom reprodukcije pre nego što se pojača i poveže sa zvučnikom za proizvodnju zvuka.

Pre razvoja zvučnih zapisa, postojali su mehanički sistemi, poput muzičkih kutija na navijanje i kasnije, automatskih klavirski svirači, za kodiranje i reprodukciju instrumentalne muzike.

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Millard, Andre J., "America on record : a history of recorded sound", Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press. 1995. ISBN 978-0-521-47544-0.

Literatura[уреди | уреди извор]

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  • Coleman, Mark, Playback: from the Victrola to MP3, 100 years of music, machines, and money, Da Capo Press, 2003.
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  • Millard, Andre J., " From Edison to the iPod", UAB Reporter, 2005, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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  • McWilliams, Jerry. The Preservation and Restoration of Sound Recordings. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History. 1979. ISBN 978-0-910050-41-8.

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