Trombocit faktor 4

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Trombocit faktor 4 (hemokin (C-X-C motif) ligand 4)
PDB prikaz baziran na 1f9q.
Dostupne strukture
1f9q, 1f9r, 1f9s, 1pfm, 1pfn, 1rhp
Identifikatori
Simboli PF4; CXCL4; MGC138298; SCYB4
Vanjski ID OMIM173460 MGI1888711 HomoloGene87791 GeneCards: PF4 Gene
Pregled RNK izražavanja
PBB GE PF4 206390 x at tn.png
podaci
Ortolozi
Vrsta Čovek Miš
Entrez 5196 56744
Ensembl ENSG00000163737 ENSMUSG00000029373
UniProt P02776 Q3TVN6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002619 NM_019932
RefSeq (protein) NP_002610 NP_064316
Lokacija (UCSC) Chr 4:
75.07 - 75.07 Mb
Chr 5:
91.85 - 91.85 Mb
PubMed pretraga [1] [2]

Trombocit faktor 4 (PF4), ili hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 4 (CXCL4), je mali citokin iz CXC hemokin familije. Ovaj hemokin se oslobađa iz alfa-granula aktiviranih trombocita u toku trombocit agregacije. On promoviše koagulaciju krvi putem dejstva na heparin-slične molekula. Iz tog razloga, za njega je predviđeno da igra ulogu in zarastanju rana i inflamacija.[1] Njegova glavna fiziološka uloga je neutralizacija heparin-sličnih molekula na endotelnoj površini krvnih sudova, čime se inhibira lokalna antitrombin III aktivnost i promoviše koagulacija.[2] On se obično nalazi u kompleksu sa proteoglikanom.[3]

PF4 je izaziva hemotaksu neutrofila, fibroblasta i monocita, i interaguje sa varijantom hemokin receptora CXCR3, poznatom kao CXCR3B.[4] Gen za ljudski PF4 je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4.[5]

Heparin:PF4 kompleks je antigen u heparin-indukovanoj trombocitopeniji, idiosinkratičnoj autoimunoj reakciji na administraciju antikoagulanta heparina.[6] PF4 autoantitela su bila nađena kod pacijenata sa trombozom i osobinama poput HIT ali ne pre administracije heparina.[7]

Vidi još[уреди]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Eisman R, Surrey S, Ramachandran B, Schwartz E, Poncz M (1990). „Structural and functional comparison of the genes for human platelet factor 4 and PF4alt”. Blood. 76 (2): 336—44. PMID 1695112. 
  2. ^ „Entrez Gene: PF4 platelet factor 4 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4)”. 
  3. ^ Mire-Sluis, Anthony R.; Thorpe, Robin, ур. (1998). Cytokines (Handbook of Immunopharmacology). Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-498340-5. 
  4. ^ Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Giannini S, Cosmi L, Sagrinati C, Mazzinghi B, Orlando C, Maggi E, Marra F, Romagnani S, Serio M, Romagnani P (2003). „An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4”. J Exp Med. 197 (11): 1537—49. PMC 2193908Слободан приступ. PMID 12782716. doi:10.1084/jem.20021897. 
  5. ^ O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4”. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 84 (1-2): 39—42. PMID 10343098. doi:10.1159/000015209. 
  6. ^ Warkentin TE (2007). „Drug-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia--from purpura to thrombosis”. N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (9): 891—3. PMID 17329695. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068309. 
  7. ^ Warkentin TE, Makris M, Jay RM, Kelton JG (2008). „A spontaneous prothrombotic disorder resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia”. Am. J. Med. 121 (7): 632—6. PMID 18589060. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.03.012. 

Literatura[уреди]

  • Bikfalvi A, Gimenez-Gallego G (2004). „The control of angiogenesis and tumor invasion by platelet factor-4 and platelet factor-4-derived molecules.”. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 30 (1): 137—44. PMID 15034805. doi:10.1055/s-2004-822978. 
  • Maurer AM, Zhou B, Han ZC (2007). „Roles of platelet factor 4 in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis.”. Growth Factors. 24 (4): 242—52. PMID 17381065. doi:10.1080/08977190600988225. 
  • Deuel TF, Keim PS, Farmer M, Heinrikson RL (1977). „Amino acid sequence of human platelet factor 4.”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (6): 2256—8. PMC 432148Слободан приступ. PMID 267922. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.6.2256. 
  • Walz DA; Wu VY; de Lamo R; et al. (1978). „Primary structure of human platelet factor 4.”. Thromb. Res. 11 (6): 893—8. PMID 601757. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(77)90117-7. 
  • Nath N, Lowery CT, Niewiarowski S (1975). „Antigenic and antiheparin properties of human platelet factor 4 (PF4).”. Blood. 45 (4): 537—50. PMID 803847. 
  • Hermodson M, Schmer G, Kurachi K (1977). „Isolation, crystallization, and primary amino acid sequence of human platelet factor 4.”. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (18): 6276—9. PMID 893407. 
  • Maione TE; Gray GS; Petro J; et al. (1990). „Inhibition of angiogenesis by recombinant human platelet factor-4 and related peptides.”. Science. 247 (4938): 77—9. PMID 1688470. doi:10.1126/science.1688470. 
  • Eisman R; Surrey S; Ramachandran B; et al. (1990). „Structural and functional comparison of the genes for human platelet factor 4 and PF4alt.”. Blood. 76 (2): 336—44. PMID 1695112. 
  • Han ZC, Bellucci S, Tenza D, Caen JP (1990). „Negative regulation of human megakaryocytopoiesis by human platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin: comparative analysis in bone marrow cultures from normal individuals and patients with essential thrombocythaemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura.”. Br. J. Haematol. 74 (4): 395—401. PMID 2140694. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1990.tb06325.x. 
  • Poncz M; Surrey S; LaRocco P; et al. (1987). „Cloning and characterization of platelet factor 4 cDNA derived from a human erythroleukemic cell line.”. Blood. 69 (1): 219—23. PMID 3098319. 
  • Griffin CA; Emanuel BS; LaRocco P; et al. (1987). „Human platelet factor 4 gene is mapped to 4q12----q21.”. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 45 (2): 67—9. PMID 3622011. doi:10.1159/000132431. 
  • Senior RM; Griffin GL; Huang JS; et al. (1983). „Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts.”. J. Cell Biol. 96 (2): 382—5. PMC 2112304Слободан приступ. PMID 6187750. doi:10.1083/jcb.96.2.382. 
  • Morgan FJ, Begg GS, Chesterman CN (1980). „Complete covalent structure of human platelet factor 4.”. Thromb. Haemost. 42 (5): 1652—60. PMID 6445090. 
  • Deuel TF; Senior RM; Chang D; et al. (1981). „Platelet factor 4 is chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes.”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78 (7): 4584—7. PMC 319837Слободан приступ. PMID 6945600. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.7.4584. 
  • Brown KJ, Parish CR (1994). „Histidine-rich glycoprotein and platelet factor 4 mask heparan sulfate proteoglycans recognized by acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor.”. Biochemistry. 33 (46): 13918—27. PMID 7524669. doi:10.1021/bi00250a047. 
  • Mayo KH; Roongta V; Ilyina E; et al. (1995). „NMR solution structure of the 32-kDa platelet factor 4 ELR-motif N-terminal chimera: a symmetric tetramer.”. Biochemistry. 34 (36): 11399—409. PMID 7547867. doi:10.1021/bi00036a012. 
  • Barker S, Mayo KH (1995). „Quarternary structure amplification of protein folding differences observed in 'native' platelet factor-4.”. FEBS Lett. 357 (3): 301—4. PMID 7835432. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)01384-D. 
  • Zhang X; Chen L; Bancroft DP; et al. (1994). „Crystal structure of recombinant human platelet factor 4.”. Biochemistry. 33 (27): 8361—6. PMID 8031770. doi:10.1021/bi00193a025. 
  • Horne MK (1993). „The effect of secreted heparin-binding proteins on heparin binding to platelets.”. Thromb. Res. 70 (1): 91—8. PMID 8511754. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(93)90226-E. 
  • Kolset SO; Mann DM; Uhlin-Hansen L; et al. (1996). „Serglycin-binding proteins in activated macrophages and platelets.”. J. Leukoc. Biol. 59 (4): 545—54. PMID 8613703. 

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]