VIPR2

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Receptor vazoaktivnog intestinalnog peptida 2
Dostupne strukture
2X57
Identifikatori
Simboli VIPR2; C16DUPq36.3; DUP7q36.3; PACAP-R-3; PACAP-R3; VIP-R-2; VPAC2; VPAC2R; VPCAP2R
Vanjski ID OMIM601970 MGI107166 HomoloGene2540 IUPHAR: VPAC2 GeneCards: VIPR2 Gene
Pregled RNK izražavanja
PBB GE VIPR2 205946 at tn.png
PBB GE VIPR2 205947 s at tn.png
PBB GE VIPR2 211598 x at tn.png
podaci
Ortolozi
Vrsta Čovek Miš
Entrez 7434 22355
Ensembl ENSG00000106018 ENSMUSG00000011171
UniProt P41587 P41588
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003382.4 NM_009511.2
RefSeq (protein) NP_003373.2 NP_033537.1
Lokacija (UCSC) Chr 7:
158.82 - 158.94 Mb
Chr 12:
117.32 - 117.38 Mb
PubMed pretraga [1] [2]

Receptor vazoaktivnog intestinalnog peptida 2 (VPAC2) je G protein spregnuti receptor koji je kod ljudi kodiran VIPR2 genom.[1]

Tkivna distribucija[уреди]

VIPR2 je Izražen u materici, prostati, glatkim mišićima gastrointestinalnog trakta, seminalnim vezikulama i koži, krvnim sudovima i grudnoj žlezdi.[2][3] VIPR2 je takođe izražen u malom mozgu.[4]

Funkcija[уреди]

Vazoaktivni intestinalni peptid (VIP) i hipofizni adenilat ciklazno aktivirajući peptid (PACAP) su homologni peptidi koji funkcionišu kao neurotransmiteri i neuroendokrini hormoni. Mada su receptori za VIP (VIRP 1 i 2) i PACAP (ADCYAP1R1) homologni, oni se razlikuju u pogledu supstratnih specifičnositi i obrazaca izražavanja.[1] Prenos signal putem VIPR2 receptora dovodi do povećane aktivnosti adenilat ciklaze.[5] VIPR2 posreduje antiinflamatorne efekte VIP hormona.[6]

Istraživanja koristeći VPAC2 nokaut miševe indiciraju da ovaj receptor učestvuje u cirkadijalnom ritmu, rastu, potrošnji bazalne energije i muškoj reprodukciji.[7][8][9][10]

Aktivacija VIPR2 i/ili PAC1 receptora učestvuje u kožnoj aktivaciji vazodilatacije kod ljudi.[11]

Splajsne varijante mogu da modifikuju imunoregulatorne doprinose VIP-VIPR2 ose.[12]

Klinički značaj[уреди]

VIPR2 moše da učestvuje u šizofreniji.[13]

Abnormalno izražavanje VIPR2 iRNK u tkivu žučne kese može da doprinese formiranju žučnog kamenja i polipa.[14]

Reference[уреди]

  1. 1,0 1,1 „Entrez Gene: VIPR2 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2”. 
  2. ^ Reubi JC (2000). „In vitro evaluation of VIP/PACAP receptors in healthy and diseased human tissues. Clinical implications.”. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 921 (1): 1—25. PMID 11193811. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06946.x. 
  3. ^ Reubi JC, Laderach U, Waser B, Gebbers JO, Robberecht P, Laissue JA (2000). „Vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtypes in human tumors and their tissues of origin.”. Cancer Res. 60 (11): 3105—3112. PMID 10850463. 
  4. ^ Basille M, Cartier D, Vaudry D, Lihrmann I, Fournier A, Freger P, Gallo-Payet N, Vaudry H, Gonzalez B (2006). „Localization and characterization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors in the human cerebellum during development”. J. Comp. Neurol. 496 (4): 468—78. PMID 16572459. doi:10.1002/cne.20934. 
  5. ^ http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=372
  6. ^ Juarranz Y, Gutiérrez-Cañas I, Santiago B, Carrión M, Pablos JL, Gomariz RP (2008). „Differential expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide and its functional receptors in human osteoarthritic and rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts”. Arthritis Rheum. 58 (4): 1086—95. PMID 18383383. doi:10.1002/art.23403. 
  7. ^ Harmar AJ, Marston HM, Shen S, Spratt C, West KM, Sheward WJ, Morrison CF, Dorin JR, Piggins HD, Reubi JC, Kelly JS, Maywood ES, Hastings MH (2002). „The VPAC2 receptor is essential for circadian function in the mouse suprachiasmatic nuclei.”. Cell. 109 (4): 497—508. PMID 12086606. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00736-5. 
  8. ^ Cutler DJ, Haraura M, Reed HE, Shen S, Sheward WJ, Morrison CF, Marston HM, Harmar AJ, Piggins HD (2003). „The mouse VPAC2 receptor confers suprachiasmatic nuclei cellular rhythmicity and responsiveness to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in vitro”. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17 (2): 197—204. PMID 12542655. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02425.x. 
  9. ^ Hughes AT, Fahey B, Cutler DJ, Coogan AN, Piggins HD (2004). „Aberrant gating of photic input to the suprachiasmatic circadian pacemaker of mice lacking the VPAC2 receptor”. J. Neurosci. 24 (14): 3522—6. PMID 15071099. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5345-03.2004. 
  10. ^ Asnicar MA, Köster A, Heiman ML, Tinsley F, Smith DP, Galbreath E, Fox N, Ma YL, Blum WF, Hsiung HM (2002). „Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor 2 deficiency in mice results in growth retardation and increased basal metabolic rate”. Endocrinology. 143 (10): 3994—4006. PMID 12239111. doi:10.1210/en.2002-220354. 
  11. ^ Kellogg DL, Zhao JL, Wu Y, Johnson JM (2010). „VIP/PACAP receptor mediation of cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans”. J. Appl. Physiol. 109 (1): 95—100. PMC 2904198Слободан приступ. PMID 20395540. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01187.2009. 
  12. ^ Miller AL, Verma D, Grinninger C, Huang MC, Goetzl EJ (2006). „Functional splice variants of the type II G protein-coupled receptor (VPAC2) for vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse and human lymphocytes”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1070 (1): 422—6. PMC 1557659Слободан приступ. PMID 16888203. doi:10.1196/annals.1317.055. 
  13. ^ Levinson DF, Duan J, Oh S, Wang K, Sanders AR, Shi J, Zhang N, Mowry BJ, Olincy A, Amin F, Cloninger CR, Silverman JM, Buccola NG, Byerley WF, Black DW, Kendler KS, Freedman R, Dudbridge F, Pe'er I, Hakonarson H, Bergen SE, Fanous AH, Holmans PA, Gejman PV (2011). „Copy Number Variants in Schizophrenia: Confirmation of Five Previous Findings and New Evidence for 3q29 Microdeletions and VIPR2 Duplications”. Am J Psychiatry. 168 (3): 302—316. PMID 21285140. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10060876. 
  14. ^ Zhang ZH, Wu SD, Gao H, Shi G, Jin JZ, Kong J, Tian Z, Su Y (2006). „Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps”. World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (9): 1468—71. PMID 16552823. 

Literatura[уреди]

  • Goetzl EJ; Pankhaniya RR; Gaufo GO; et al. (1998). „Selectivity of effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on macrophages and lymphocytes in compartmental immune responses.”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 840 (1 NEUROIMMUNOMO): 540—50. PMID 9629281. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09593.x. 
  • Adamou JE, Aiyar N, Van Horn S, Elshourbagy NA (1995). „Cloning and functional characterization of the human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-2 receptor.”. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 209 (2): 385—92. PMID 7733904. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1515. 
  • Svoboda M; Tastenoy M; Van Rampelbergh J; et al. (1995). „Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a human VIP receptor from SUP-T1 lymphoblasts.”. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 205 (3): 1617—24. PMID 7811244. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2852. 
  • Inagaki N; Yoshida H; Mizuta M; et al. (1994). „Cloning and functional characterization of a third pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype expressed in insulin-secreting cells.”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (7): 2679—83. PMC 43433Слободан приступ. PMID 8146174. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.7.2679. 
  • Xia M; Gaufo GO; Wang Q; et al. (1996). „Transduction of specific inhibition of HuT 78 human T cell chemotaxis by type I vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors.”. J. Immunol. 157 (3): 1132—8. PMID 8757618. 
  • Wei Y, Mojsov S (1997). „Tissue specific expression of different human receptor types for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: implications for their role in human physiology.”. J. Neuroendocrinol. 8 (11): 811—7. PMID 8933357. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2826.1996.05191.x. 
  • Mackay M; Fantes J; Scherer S; et al. (1997). „Chromosomal localization in mouse and human of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2 gene: a possible contributor to the holoprosencephaly 3 phenotype.”. Genomics. 37 (3): 345—53. PMID 8938447. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0569. 
  • Nicole P, Du K, Couvineau A, Laburthe M (1998). „Site-directed mutagenesis of human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor subtypes VIP1 and VIP2: evidence for difference in the structure-function relationship.”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 284 (2): 744—50. PMID 9454823. 
  • Dewit D; Gourlet P; Amraoui Z; et al. (1998). „The vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue RO25-1553 inhibits the production of TNF and IL-12 by LPS-activated monocytes.”. Immunol. Lett. 60 (1): 57—60. PMID 9541464. doi:10.1016/S0165-2478(97)00129-6. 
  • Lutz EM; Shen S; Mackay M; et al. (1999). „Structure of the human VIPR2 gene for vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2.”. FEBS Lett. 458 (2): 197—203. PMID 10481065. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01135-7. 
  • Busto R; Prieto JC; Bodega G; et al. (2000). „Immunohistochemical localization and distribution of VIP/PACAP receptors in human lung.”. Peptides. 21 (2): 265—9. PMID 10764955. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(99)00202-8. 
  • Nicole P; Lins L; Rouyer-Fessard C; et al. (2000). „Identification of key residues for interaction of vasoactive intestinal peptide with human VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and development of a highly selective VPAC1 receptor agonist. Alanine scanning and molecular modeling of the peptide.”. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (31): 24003—12. PMID 10801840. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002325200. 
  • Bajo AM; Juarranz MG; Valenzuela P; et al. (2001). „Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in human uterus.”. Peptides. 21 (9): 1383—8. PMID 11072126. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(00)00282-5. 
  • Lara-Marquez M; O'Dorisio M; O'Dorisio T; et al. (2001). „Selective gene expression and activation-dependent regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 and type 2 in human T cells.”. J. Immunol. 166 (4): 2522—30. PMID 11160313. 
  • Lara-Marquez ML, O'Dorisio MS, Karacay B (2001). „Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 2 (VPAC2) is the predominant receptor expressed in human thymocytes.”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 921 (1): 45—54. PMID 11193874. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06950.x. 
  • Groneberg DA, Hartmann P, Dinh QT, Fischer A (2001). „Expression and distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor VPAC(2) mRNA in human airways.”. Lab. Invest. 81 (5): 749—55. PMID 11351046. doi:10.1038/labinvest.3780283. 
  • Juarranz MG; Bolaños O; Gutiérrez-Cañas I; et al. (2002). „Neuroendocrine differentiation of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line maintains the expression and function of VIP and PACAP receptors.”. Cell. Signal. 13 (12): 887—94. PMID 11728828. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(01)00199-1. 
  • Fischer TC; Dinh QT; Peiser C; et al. (2002). „Simultaneous detection of receptor mRNA and ligand protein in human skin tissues.”. J. Cutan. Pathol. 29 (2): 65—71. PMID 12150135. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0560.2002.290201.x. 
  • Strausberg RL; Feingold EA; Grouse LH; et al. (2003). „Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899—903. PMC 139241Слободан приступ. PMID 12477932. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. 

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