Ljudska pouzdanost

Ljudska pouzdanost se odnosi na oblast ljudskog faktora i ergonomiju, a odnosi se na pouzdanost ljudi u oblastima kao što su proizvodnja, prevoz, vojne ili medicine. Ljudski učinak može uticati mnogim faktorima kao što su dob, stanje uma, fizičko zdravlje, stav, emocije, sklonosti za određene zajedničke greške, greške i kognitivnih predrasude, itd

Ljudska pouzdanost je vrlo važno zbog doprinosa ljudi na otpornost sistema i na moguće negativne posljedice ljudske greške ili propusta, posebno kada ljudski je ključni dio velikog socio-tehničkih sistema kao što je zajednička danas. User-centered design i pogreške-tolerantni dizajna su samo dva od mnogih pojmova koji se koriste za opisivanje napore kako bi tehnologiju bolje odgovara za rad od strane ljudi.`

Analize tehnika[уреди | уреди извор]

Postoje Postoje različite metode za analizu ljudskih pouzdanosti.[1][2] Dva opće klase metoda su one zasnovane na probabilističke procjene rizika ( PRA ) i onih koji se baziraju na kognitivne teorije kontrole

Tehnike PRA[уреди | уреди извор]

Jedna od metoda za analizu ljudskih pouzdanosti je jednostavno proširenje probabilističke procjene rizika (PRA): na isti način na koji oprema može propasti u elektrani, tako da se ljudsko operatera počini greške. U oba slučaja, analiza (funkcionalne dekompozicije za opremu i analizu zadataka za ljude) bi artikulirati nivo detalja za koje kvara ili greške vjerojatnosti može biti dodijeljen. Ova osnovna ideja je iza tehnika za predivi]anje stope ljudske greške (THERP).[3] THERP je namijenjen za generiranje vjerojatnosti ljudske greške koje će biti uključene u PRA. U programu za procenu redosleda nezgoda (ASEP) postupak ljudskih pouzdanost je pojednostavljen oblik THERP; Asocirani računarski alat je pojednostavljen Analiza Human Error Code (SHEAN).[4] Nedavno je Nuklearna regulatorna komisija SAD je objavila Standardizovanu analizu rizika postrojenja, analizu ljudske pouzdanost (SPAR-H), metoda kojim se uzema u obzir potencijal za ljudsko greške.[5][6]

Tehnike kognitivne kontrole[уреди | уреди извор]

Erik Hollnagel je razvio ovu liniju razmišljanja u svom radu na kontekstualno Control Model ( COCOM ) [ 7 ] i kognitivne Pouzdanost i analiza Error Method ( KREMA ). [ 8 ] COCOM modeli ljudskih performansi kao skup kontrole prikaza - strateške ( na osnovu dugoročno planiranje ), taktička ( na osnovu procedure ), oportunistički ( zasnovano na ovom kontekstu ), i kodiran ( random ) - i predlaže model kako doći do prelaza između ovih kontrolu prikaza. Ovaj model kontrole tranzicije režim se sastoji od niza faktora, uključujući i procjenu ljudskih operatera o ishodu akcije ( uspjeh ili neuspjeh ), vremena preostalo da ostvari akciju ( adekvatno ili neadekvatno ), a broj istovremenih ciljeva ljudskih operatera u to vrijeme. Krema je pouzdanost metoda za ljudska analiza koja se temelji na COCOM .

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Kirwan and Ainsworth, 1992
  2. ^ Kirwan, 1994
  3. ^ Swain & Guttmann, 1983
  4. ^ Simplified Human Error Analysis Code (Wilson, 1993)
  5. ^ SPAR-H
  6. ^ Gertman et al., 2005

Literatura[уреди | уреди извор]

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