Samjuel Džonson

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Samjuel Džonson
Portrait of Samuel Johnson in 1772 painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Samjuel Džonson c. 1772,
rad slikara Ser Džošue Rejnoldsa
Ime po rođenjuSamuel Johnson
Druga imenaDr. Džonson
Datum rođenja18. септембар 1709.(1709-09-18)
(OS 7. september)
Mesto rođenjaLičfild, Stafordšir
 Velika Britanija
Datum smrti13. децембар 1784.(1784-12-13)(75 год.)
Mesto smrtiLondon
 Velika Britanija
Mesto ukopaVestminsterska opatija
PrebivališteEngleska
DržavljanstvoBritansko
UniverzitetPembrok koledž, Oksford
(nema diplome)
ZanimanjeKnjiževni kritičar, biograf, esejista, leksikograf, pesnik, dramski pisac
RadoviRečnik engleskog jezika
Putovanje na zapadne ostrva Škotske

Samjuel Džonson (18. septembar 1709. – 13. decembar 1784), često nazivan Dr. Džonson, bio je engleski pisac koji je dao trajni doprinos engleskoj književnosti kao pesnik, dramski pisac, esejista, moralista, književni kritičar, biograf, urednik i leksikograf. Bio je pobožni anglikanac.[1] Politički, on je bio posvećeni torijevac. Oksfordski rečnik nacionalne biografije opisuje Džonsona kao „verovatno najistaknutijeg pisca u engleskoj istoriji”.[2] On je tema Džejms Bosvelovog dela Život Samjuela Džonsona, koje je Volter Džekson Bejt opisao kao „najpoznatiji pojedinačni rad biografske umetnosti u čitavoj književnosti”.[3]

Rođen u Ličfildu, Stafordšir, Džonson je pohađao Pembruk koledž u Okfordu nešto duže od godinu dana, ali ga je nedostatak sredstava prisilio da napusti studije. Nakon što je radio kao nastavnik, preselio se u London, gde je počeo da piše za Džentlmanski magazin. Njegovi rani radovi uključuju biografiju Život gospodina Ričarda Savidža, poeme London i Ispraznost ljudskih želja, i predstavu Irena.

Nakon devet godina rada, Džonsonov Rečnik engleskog jezika objavljen je 1755. godine. On je imao dalekosežan uticaj na savremeni engleski jezik i bio je priznat kao „jedno od najvećih pojedinačnih dostignuća učenosti”.[4] Ovo delo je donelo Džonsonu popularnost i uspeh. Do završetka Oksfordskog engleskog rečnika 150 godina kasnije, Džonsonov je bio najistaknutiji britanski rečnik.[5] Njegovi kasniji radovi uključivali su eseje, uticajno anotirano izdanje Predstava Vilijama Šekspira i široko čitana priča Istorija Raselasa, princa od Abisinije. Godine 1763, on se sprijateljio sa Džejmsom Bosvelom, s kojim je kasnije otputovao u Škotsku. Džonson je opisao njihova putovanja u delu Putovanju do zapadnih ostrva Škotske. Pred kraj svog života, proizveo je masivno i uticajno delo Životi najeminentnijih engleskih pesnika, zbirku biografija i evaluacija pesnika iz 17. i 18. veka.

Džonson je bio visok[a] i robustan čovek. Njegovi čudni gestovi i tikovi bili su uznemirujući za neke ljude pri prvom sastanku sa njim. Bosvelov Život, zajedno sa drugim biografijama, dokumentovao je Džonsonovo ponašanje i manire tako detaljno da je omogućena posthumna dijagnoza Turetovog sindroma,[7] stanja koje nije definisano ili dijagnozirano u 18. veku. Nakon niza bolesti, umro je uveče 13. decembra 1784. godine i sahranjen je u Vestminsterskoj opatiji. U godinama nakon njegove smrti, postala je jasna velčina Džonsonovog dugotrajnog uticaja na književnu kritiku, a prema nekima on jedini zaista veliki kritičar engleske književnosti.[8]

Napomene[уреди]

  1. ^ Džonson je bio visok 180 cm (5 stopa 11 inča) kad je prosečna visina ljudi u Engleskoj bila 165 cm (5 stopa 5 inča).[6]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Meyers 2008, стр. 2
  2. ^ Rogers, Pat (2006), „Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online изд.), Oxford University Press, Приступљено 25. 8. 2008 
  3. ^ Bate 1977, стр. xix
  4. ^ Bate 1977, стр. 240
  5. ^ Lynch 2003, стр. 1
  6. ^ Meyers 2008, стр. 29
  7. ^ Murray 1979 and Stern, Burza & Robertson 2005
  8. ^ Winters 1943, стр. 240

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Spoljašnje veze[уреди]