Планетарна маглина

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије

Планетарна маглина је емисиона маглина која се састоји од светлећег јонизованог гаса који се шири.[1] Име је добила због сличности са изгледом планета када се посматра кроз мањи телескоп, али нема никакве везе са планетама Сунчевог система.[2][3] Оне су релативно краткотрајан феномен, само неколико десетина хиљада година, у односу на типични стеларни животни век од неколико милијарди година.



  • Aller, Lawrence H.; Hyung, Siek (19–23 November 2001) [2001], Kwok, Sun; Dopita, Michael; Sutherland, Ralph, ур., „Historical Remarks on the Spectroscopic Analysis of Planetary Nebulae (invited review)”, Proceedings of the 209th Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Planetary Nebulae: Their Evolution and Role in the Universe, Canberra, Australia: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 209: 15, Bibcode:2003IAUS..209...15A 
  • Allison, Mark (2006), Star clusters and how to observe them, Birkhäuser, стр. 56—8, ISBN 978-1-84628-190-7 
  • Bowen, I. S. (October 1927), „The Origin of the Chief Nebular Lines”, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 39: 295—7, Bibcode:1927PASP...39..295B, doi:10.1086/123745 
  • Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam (November 2009), „Very late thermal pulses influenced by accretion in planetary nebulae”, New Astronomy, 14 (8): 654—8, Bibcode:2009NewA...14..654F, doi:10.1016/j.newast.2009.03.006, »A planetary nebula (PN) is an expanding ionized circumstellar cloud that was ejected during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of the stellar progenitor.« 
  • Gurzadyan, Grigor A. (1997), The Physics and dynamics of planetary nebulae, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-60965-0 
  • Harpaz, Amos (1994), Stellar Evolution, A K Peters, Ltd., ISBN 978-1-56881-012-6 
  • Hora, Joseph L.; Latter, William B.; Allen, Lori E.; Marengo, Massimo; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Pipher, Judith L. (September 2004), „Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Observations of Planetary Nebulae”, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 154 (1): 296—301, Bibcode:2004ApJS..154..296H, doi:10.1086/422820 
  • Hubble Witnesses the Final Blaze of Glory of Sun-Like Stars, Hubblesite.org, 17. 12. 1997, Приступљено 9. 8. 2008 
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  • Iliadis, Christian (2007), Nuclear physics of stars. Physics textbook, Wiley-VCH, стр. 18,439—42, ISBN 978-3-527-40602-9 
  • Jacoby, George. H.; Ferland, Gary. J.; Korista, Kirk T. (2001), „The Planetary Nebula A39: An Observational Benchmark for Numerical Modeling of Photoionized Plasmas”, The Astrophysical Journal, 560 (1): 272—86, Bibcode:2001ApJ...560..272J, doi:10.1086/322489 
  • Jordan, S.; Werner, K.; O'Toole, S. J. (March 2005), „Discovery of magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 432 (1): 273—9, Bibcode:2005A&A...432..273J, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041993 
  • Kiss, L. L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Balog, Z.; Parker, Q. A.; Frew, D. J. (November 2008), „AAOmega radial velocities rule out current membership of the planetary nebula NGC 2438 in the open cluster M46”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 391 (1): 399—404, Bibcode:2008MNRAS.391..399K, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13899.x 
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  • Kwok, Sun (2000), The origin and evolution of planetary nebulae, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62313-8  (Chapter 1 can be downloaded here.)
  • Kwok, Sun (June 2005), „Planetary Nebulae: New Challenges in the 21st Century”, Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society, 38 (2): 271—8, Bibcode:2005JKAS...38..271K, doi:10.5303/JKAS.2005.38.2.271 
  • Kwok, Sun; Su, Kate Y. L. (December 2005), „Discovery of Multiple Coaxial Rings in the Quadrupolar Planetary Nebula NGC 6881”, The Astrophysical Journal, 635 (1): L49—52, Bibcode:2005ApJ...635L..49K, doi:10.1086/499332, »We report the discovery of multiple two-dimensional rings in the quadrupolar planetary nebula NGC 6881. As many as four pairs of rings are seen in the bipolar lobes, and three rings are seen in the central torus. While the rings in the lobes have the same axis as one pair of the bipolar lobes, the inner rings are aligned with the other pair. The two pairs of bipolar lobes are likely to be carved out by two separate high-velocity outflows from the circumstellar material left over from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) wind. The two-dimensional rings could be the results of dynamical instabilities or the consequence of a fast outflow interacting with remnants of discrete AGB circumstellar shells.« 
  • Kwok, Sun; Koning, Nico; Huang, Hsiu-Hui; Churchwell, Edward (2006), Barlow, Michael J.; Méndez, ур., „Planetary nebulae in the GLIMPSE survey”, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Symposium #234, Planetary Nebulae in our Galaxy and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2 (S234): 445—6, Bibcode:2006IAUS..234..445K, doi:10.1017/S1743921306003668, »Planetary nebulae (PNs) have high dust content and radiate strongly in the infrared. For young PNs, the dust component accounts for ∼1/3 of the total energy output of the nebulae (Zhang & Kwok 1991). The typical color temperatures of PNs are between 100 and 200 K, and at λ >5 μm, dust begins to dominate over bound-free emission from the ionized component. Although PNs are traditionally discovered through examination of photographic plates or Hα surveys, PNs can also be identified in infrared surveys by searching for red objects with a rising spectrum between 4-10 μm.« 
  • Liu, X.-W.; Storey, P. J.; Barlow, M. J.; Danziger, I. J.; Cohen, M.; Bryce, M. (March 2000), „NGC 6153: a super–metal–rich planetary nebula?”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 312 (3): 585—628, Bibcode:2000MNRAS.312..585L, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03167.x 
  • Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Idiart, T. E. P. (October 2009), „Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds”, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, 45: 127—37, Bibcode:2009RMxAA..45..127M, »These objects are produced by low and intermediate mass stars, with main sequence masses roughly between 0.8 and 8 M, and present a reasonably large age and metallicity spread.« 
  • Majaess, D. J.; Turner, D.; Lane, D. (December 2007), „In Search of Possible Associations between Planetary Nebulae and Open Clusters”, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 119 (862): 1349—60, Bibcode:2007PASP..119.1349M, doi:10.1086/524414 
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  • Mermilliod, J.-C.; Clariá, J. J.; Andersen, J.; Piatti, A. E.; Mayor, M. (August 2001), „Red giants in open clusters. IX. NGC 2324, 2818, 3960 and 6259”, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 375 (1): 30—9, Bibcode:2001A&A...375...30M, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010845 
  • Moore, S. L. (October 2007), „Observing the Cat's Eye Nebula”, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 117 (5): 279—80, Bibcode:2007JBAA..117R.279M 
  • Morris, M. (1990), „Bipolar asymmetry in the mass outflows of stars in transition”, Ур.: Mennessier, M.O.; Omont, Alain, From Miras to planetary nebulae: which path for stellar evolution?, Montpellier, France, September 4–7, 1989 IAP astrophysics meeting: Atlantica Séguier Frontières, стр. 526—30, ISBN 978-2-86332-077-8.  
  • Osterbrock, Donald E.; Ferland, G. J. (2005), Ferland, G. J., ур., Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei, University Science Books, ISBN 978-1-891389-34-4 
  • Parker, Quentin A.; Acker, A.; Frew, D. J.; Hartley, M.; Peyaud, A. E. J.; Ochsenbein, F.; Phillipps, S.; Russeil, D.; Beaulieu, S. F. (November 2006), „The Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα Planetary Nebula Catalogue: MASH”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 373 (1): 79—94, Bibcode:2006MNRAS.373...79P, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10950.x 
  • Reed, Darren S.; Balick, Bruce; Hajian, Arsen R.; Klayton, Tracy L.; Giovanardi, Stefano; Casertano, Stefano; Panagia, Nino; Terzian, Yervant (November 1999), „Hubble Space Telescope Measurements of the Expansion of NGC 6543: Parallax Distance and Nebular Evolution”, Astronomical Journal, 118 (5): 2430—41, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.2430R, doi:10.1086/301091 
  • Renzini, A. (1987), S. Torres-Peimbert, ур., „Thermal pulses and the formation of planetary nebula shells”, Proceedings of the 131st symposium of the IAU: 391—400, Bibcode:1989IAUS..131..391R 
  • Soker, Noam (February 2002), „Why every bipolar planetary nebula is `unique'”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 330 (2): 481—6, Bibcode:2002MNRAS.330..481S, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05105.x 
  • The first detection of magnetic fields in the central stars of four planetary nebulae, SpaceDaily Express, 6. 1. 2005, Приступљено 18. 10. 2009, »Source: Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics« 

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