Ajavazi

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Ajavazi (tamilski அய்யாவழி, malajalamski അയ്യാവഴി Ayyāvaḻi[1] [əjːaːvəɻi], „Put učitelja”) henoteističko je verovanje koje vodi poreklo iz Južne Indije.[2] Nekoliko novina,[3][4][5] vladinih izveštaja,[6][7] časopisa,[8] i akademskih istraživača navodi je kao nezavisnu monističku[9][10] religiju.[11][12][13][14][15] Međutim, u indijskim popisima stanovništva, većina njenih sledbenika izjašnjava se kao Hindusi. Stoga se ajavazi takođe smatra hinduističkom denominacijom.[16][17][18] Zvanično (pravno), ajavazi postoji u hinduizmu kao hinduistička denominacija.[19]

Ajavazi je usredsređen na život i propovedi Aje Vajkundar; njegove ideje i filozofija zasnivaju se na svetim tekstovima Akilatiratu Amanaj i Arul Nul. Stoga je Vajkundar bio puranski avatar Narajane.[20] Ajavazi deli mnoge ideje sa hinduizmom u svojim verovanjima i praksi, ali se znatno razlikuje u svojim konceptima dobra i zla i darme.[21] Ajavazi je klasifikovan kao darmičko verovanje zbog svog centralnog fokusa na darmi.[22]

Ajavazi je prvi put privukao pažnju javnosti u 19. veku kao hinduistička sekta.[23] Vajkundrove aktivnosti i sve veći broj sledbenika izazvali su reformaciju i revoluciju travankorskog[24] i tamilskog društva 19. veka,[25] iznenadivši feudalni društveni sistem Južne Indije.[26] Takođe je pokrenula niz reformskih pokreta, uključujući one Narajana Gurua[27][28] i Ramalinge Svamigala.[29]

Iako su sledbenici ajavazija zastupljeni širom Indije,[30][31] oni su prevashodno prisutni u Južnoj Indiji,[32] a posebno su koncentrisani u Tamil Naduu[33] i Kerali.[34] Procenjuje se da broj sledbenika iznosi između 8.000.000[35] i 10.000.000,[36] mada tačan broj nije poznat, pošto se Ajavazi prijavljuju kao Hindusi tokom popisa.[37][38]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ The 'zhi' (ழி) portion of the word Ayyavazhi is a retroflex, and it is correctly transliterated according to the National Library at Kolkata romanization as Ayyāvaḻi.
  2. ^ Tha. Krishna Nathan, Ayyaa vaikuNdarin vaazvum sinthanaiyum, p. 62: "அவர் (வைகுண்டர்) மாற்றுப் பிறப்பு பெற்ற நாளே அய்யாவழி சமய மரபு தோற்றம் பெற்ற நாள்(கி.பி.1833) எனக் கூறலாம்." (The day at which Vaikundar is given rebirth could be considered as the date of origin of the Ayyavazhi religion.)
  3. ^ The following morning and evening dailies refer to Ayyavazhi as a religion:
    • Malai Malar (leading evening Tamil daily), Nagercoil Edition, 4 March 2007, p. 5, "சுவாமி ஊர்வலத்தை அய்யாவழி பக்தர்கள் சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிக..." (this report calls Ayyavazhi ('அய்யாவழி சமயம்') "a separate religion");
    • Dinakaran (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 1 March 2007, p. 3: "அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் அடிக்கல் நாட்டினார் ("Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion laid foundation stone for the ...");
    • Dinakaran (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 14 February 2011, p. 2: "...தலைமை பதிக்கு வந்த ரவிசங்கர்ஜியை அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் வரவேற்றார். ("Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion welcomed Sri Sri Ravi Shankar who arrived here in Swamithope pathi...");
    • Dina Thanthi, Nagercoil Edition, 2/3/2007, p. 5. "மாநாட்டுக்கு அய்யாவழி சமய தலைவர் பால பிரஜாபதி அடிகளார் தலைமை தாங்குகிறார்." Translation – "The religious conference is led by Bala Prajapathi Adikalar, the head of Ayyavazhi religion." This news from a leading news paper in India, on reporting the 175th Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, calls Ayyavazhi a religion, and Bala Prajapathi Adikalar the head of Ayyavazhi religion;
    • Tamil Murasu (4/3/2006), p. 3:"இதையொட்டி குமரி மாவட்டம் சாமி தோப்பில் 'அய்யா வழி சமய' மாநாடு (the conference of 'Ayyavazhi religion') உள்பட..."
  4. ^ „Nallakannu Watches Ayyavazhi” (www.kollywoodtoday.com). " They follow a religion based on his principles, which is called Ayyavazhi.". Приступљено 9. 6. 2008. 
  5. ^ „Ayyavazhi followers visit Swamithoppu” (The Hindu). " By the middle of nineteenth century, Ayyavazhi was recognised as an independent religion...". Chennai, India. 5. 3. 2010. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 10. 3. 2010. Приступљено 5. 3. 2010. 
  6. ^ „Bala Prajapathi Adikalar Manivizha” (www.tn.gov.in). "The Maniviza (fest) for Bala Prajapathi Adikalar, the head of Ayyavazhi religion ..." (Tamil: Press release No-45/13-01-2008.). Приступљено 22. 3. 2009. 
  7. ^ „Sri Vaikunda Swamigal” (PDF). "By the midnineteenth century, Ayyavazhi came to be recognized as a separate religion and spread in the regions of South Travancore and South Tirunelveli.". Архивирано из оригинала (Tamilnadu Text book Corporation) на датум 22. 11. 2009. Приступљено 22. 5. 2010. 
  8. ^ Online, Independent. „Travel tips for first time Travelers in India”. www.iol.co.za. 
  9. ^ N. Vivekanandan, Akilathirattu Ammanai moolamum Uraiyum, Volume 2, p. 97
  10. ^ N. Vivekanandan, Akilathirattu Ammanai moolamum Uraiyum, Volume 2, p. 97
  11. ^ Wallis, Graham Harvey [and] Robert J.; J. Wallis, Robert (2010). The A to Z of shamanism. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. стр. 101. ISBN 0810876000. Приступљено 4. 10. 2014. 
  12. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, Chapter 5, pp. 120–121. '"it may be concluded that, AV emerged as a 'new and singular' religious phenomenon in that context"
  13. ^ Mateer, Samuel (1871). The Land of Charity (Samuel Mateer). "this singular people display considerable zeal in the defence and propagation" (This author's view is negative over the 'belief of Ayyavazhi', but this book is cited here only to reflect the then structure of Ayyavazhi on the social and religious ground as viewed by an outsider.). Приступљено 23. 1. 2008. 
  14. ^ Graham Harvey and Robert J. Wallis, (2007), Historical Dictionary of Shamanism, ISBN 0-8108-5798-7, Scarecrow Press, pp. 101
  15. ^ M.C. Raj (2001), Dalitology: The Book of the Dalit People, Ambedkar Resource Centre, Tumkūr, India, p. 422, "The Shanans also started a non-Brahminic religion called Ayya Vazhi." ISBN 81-87367-04-0
  16. ^ „Tamil Nadu – Nagercoil” (Gold ornaments stolen from temple). "... which was the headquarters of Ayya Vazhi sect, had been decorated with jewels in view of the ongoing festival ...". Приступљено 15. 4. 2009. 
  17. ^ R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 98
  18. ^ „Madurai News Letter” (PDF). "Fr. Maria Jeyaraj arranged an inter-faith dialogue at Samithoppu, Kanyakumari, on 'Akila Thirattu Ammanai' and 'Arul Nool', the scriptures of 'Ayya Vazhi', an 'important sect of Hinduism'. The present head of Ayya Vazhi, Sri Bala Prajapathi Adigalar, guided the meeting.". Архивирано из оригинала (Thozhamai Illam, Kanyakumari) на датум 29. 11. 2007. Приступљено 23. 1. 2008. 
  19. ^ „Ayyavazhi Religion” (Web page). religious-information.com. SBI. Приступљено 29. 3. 2012. 
  20. ^ David, A. Maria (2009). Beyond boundaries : Hindu-Christian relationship and basic Christian communities (First изд.). Delhi: Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. стр. 32. ISBN 9788184650013. 
  21. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 111–113,
  22. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 160–161.
  23. ^ R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 98.
  24. ^ R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 63, "The religious reform of Sri Vaikunda Swamigal left an everlasting influence on South Travancorean society."
  25. ^ G. Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, pp. 90–91.
  26. ^ R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 86.
  27. ^ Selvister Ponnumuthan, (1996), The spirituality of basic ecclesial communities in the socio-religious context of Trivandrum/Kerala, India, ISBN 88-7652-721-4, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, pp. 77–78
  28. ^ „Are the Travancore Kings Nairs?”. nairs.org. Приступљено 9. 9. 2007. »"It is worth mentioning here that Chattambi Swamikal and Sreenarayana Gurudevan were ardent devotees of Lord Muruka, so also their predecessor Ayya Vaikuntar." This statement says that Chattampi Swamikal and Narayana Guru are the (predecessors or disciples) of Vaikundar« 
  29. ^ R. Ponnu, Vaikunda swamigal Ore Avataram, p. 178.
  30. ^ Dina Malar(Leading Tamil News paper), Nagercoil Edition, 4/3/2005 p. 12: "எனேவ இன்று அய்யா வைகுண்டசாமி வழிபாட்டு ஆலயங்கள் இந்தியா முழுவதும் வேராயிரம் பெற்ற விழுதுகளாய் படந்து ஆறாயிரத்துக்கு மேல் தோன்றி வளர்ந்து வருகிறது" Translated to "So today these worship centers of Vaikunda Sami is spread across India and growing with more than 6000 of them"
  31. ^ C. Paulose, Advaita Philosophy of Brahmasri Chattampi Swamikal, p. 24, "To propagate his teachings and ideas he opened upon seven Pathis and seven Tangs (The Primary Nizhal Thangals) in Travancore, hundreds of small pagodas (Nizhal Thangals) throughout India." Accrediting the Worship centers of Ayyavazhi across India and so the Ayyavazhi followers.
  32. ^ R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 100, '"At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  33. ^ Dina Thanthi, (Tamil Daily) Nagercoil Edition, 4 March 2007, p. 23: "The Ayyavazhi followers are highly populated in the districts of Chennai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari."
  34. ^ Tha. Krishna Nathan, Ayya Vaikundarin Vazhvum Sinthanaiyum, Chapter 4, p. 83: "இதற்கு ஆதாரமாக அய்யா வைகுண்டரைத் தெய்வமாக ஏற்றுக்கொண்ட சுமார் 8000 – க்கும் மேற்பட்ட அய்யாவழிப் பதிகள் தமிழ்நாடு மற்றும் கேரளப்பகுதிகளில் இயங்குவதைக் கூறலாம்." (This citation was included here from Tamil Wikipedia article)
  35. ^ Dinakaran, Nagercoil edition, p. 15, 25 February 2007.
  36. ^ 31st Indian Social Science Congress, A note on People's Struggles and Movements for Equitable Society Архивирано 2016-03-03 на сајту Wayback Machine, Plenary IV: People's Struggles and Movements For Gender/ Racial/ Caste-Discrimination-free Equitable Society, p. 47.
  37. ^ „Indian Census 2001 – Population by religious communities” (Other Religious Communities). 256, Tamil Nadu. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 19. 1. 2008. Приступљено 23. 1. 2008. 
  38. ^ „Religion”. Paragraph 6. Архивирано из оригинала (Religion In India) на датум 15. 8. 2009. Приступљено 7. 11. 2009. 

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