Indijski ustanak 1857. godine

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Indijski ustanak 1857. godine
A 1912 map showing the centres of the rebellion
Karta iz 1912. godine koja prikazuje centre pobune
Vrijeme:10. maj 1857 (1857-05-10)1. novembar 1858 (1858-11-01)
(1 godina i 6 meseci)
Mjesto:Indija
Rezultat:

Britanska pobeda

Sukobljene strane
Žrtve i gubici
6.000 od 40.000 Evropljana ubijeno.[1] Čak 800.000 Indijaca, a možda i više, kako zbog pobune, tako i usled gladi i epidemija bolesti, sudeći po populacionim procenama iz 1857. i indijanskom popisu iz 1871. godine.[1]

Indijski ustanak 1857. godine bio je veliki, ali na kraju neuspešan, ustanak u Indiji 1857–58 protiv vladavine Britanske istočnoindijske kompanije, koja je u ime Britanske krune funkcionisala kao suverena sila.[2][3] Pobuna je započela 10. maja 1857. u obliku pobune sepoja kompanijine vojske u garnizonskom gradu Mirutu, 40 mi (64 km) severoistočno od Delhija (sada Stari Delhi). Zatim je eruptirala u druge pobune i civilne pobune, uglavnom u gornjem delu doline Ganga i centralnoj Indiji,[a][4][b][5] mada je bilo nemira i dalje na severu i istoku.[c][6] Ova pobuna je predstavljala značajnu pretnju britanskoj moći u tom regionu,[d][7] i bila je suzbijena tek nakon poraza pobunjenika u Gvalioru 20. juna 1858. godine.[8] Dana 1. novembra 1858. Britanci su odobrili amnestiju svim pobunjenicima koji nisu umešani u ubistva, mada nisu objavili da su neprijateljstva formalno okončana do 8. jula 1859. Pobuna je poznata pod mnogim imenima, uključujući Sepojska pobuna, Indijska pobuna, Velika pobuna, Pobuna iz 1857. godine, Indijski ustanak i Prvi rat za nezavisnost.[9][9]

Indijska pobuna bila je hranjena odbojstvom rođenim iz različitih percepcija, uključujući invazivne socijalne reforme britanskog stila, oštre poreze na zemlju, sveukupni tretman nekih bogatih vlasnika zemljišta i prinčeva,[10][11] kao i skepticizam prema poboljšanjima koje je donela britanska vladavina.[e][12] Mnogi Indijci su se podigli protiv Britanaca; međutim, mnogi su se takođe borili za Britance, a većina se i dalje naizgled ophodila u skladu sa britanskom upravom.[f][12] Nasilje koje je ponekad manifestovalo izuzetnu okrutnost bilo je vršeno na obe strane, nad britanskim oficirima i civilima, uključujući žene i decu, od strane pobunjenika, i nad pobunjenicima i njihovim pristalicama, uključujući ponekad čitava sela, britanskim represalijama; gradovi Delhi i Laknau su razoreni u borbama i usled britanske odmazde.[g][12]

Notes[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ „Pobuna iz 1857. godine uglavnom je bila ograničena na severnu indijsku ravnicu Ganga i centralnu Indiju.”[4]
  2. ^ „Pobuna je bila ograničena na severnu dolinu Ganga i centralnu Indiju.”[5]
  3. ^ „Iako se većina nasilja dogodila u severnoj indijskoj dolini Ganga i centralnoj Indiji, nedavne istraživanja sugerišu da je pobuna dosegla i delove istoka i severa.”[6]
  4. ^ „Ono po čemu su osobeni događaji iz 1857. godine bio je njihov obim i činjenica da su za kratko vreme predstavljali vojnu pretnju britanskoj dominaciji u ravnici Ganga.”[7]
  5. ^ „Indijski vojnici i seosko stanovništvo velikog dela severne Indije pokazali su nepoverenje prema svojim vladarima i otuđenost od njih. ... Uprkos svog govora o poboljšanju, novi su vladari još uvek bili u stanju da ponude vrlo malo na putu pozitivnog podsticanja da bi Indijci prihvatili ovu vladavinu.”[12]
  6. ^ „Mnogi Indijci su podigli oružje protiv Britanaca, mada su bili iz veoma različitih regiona. S druge strane, vrlo veliki broj se zapravo borio za Britance, dok je većina ostala očigledno ponizna. Objašnjenja se stoga moraju koncentrirati na motive onih koji su se zapravo pobunili”[12]
  7. ^ „Troškovi pobune u pogledu ljudske patnje bili su ogromni. Dva velika grada, Delhi i Laknau, opustošeni su borbama i pljačkom pobedničkih Britanaca. Tamo gde je seosko stanovništvo pružalo otpor, kao u delovima Auda, sela su spaljena. Pobunjenici i njihove pristalice često su ubijani po viđenju. Britanski civili, uključujući žene i decu, isto tako su ubijani, kao i britanski oficiri sepojskih pukova.”[12]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Peers 2013, стр. 64.
  2. ^ Marshall 2007, стр. 197
  3. ^ David 2003, стр. 9
  4. 4,0 4,1 Bose & Jalal 2004, стр. 72–73
  5. 5,0 5,1 Marriott, John (2013), The other empire: Metropolis, India and progress in the colonial imagination, Manchester University Press, стр. 195, ISBN 978-1-84779-061-3 
  6. 6,0 6,1 Bender, Jill C. (2016), The 1857 Indian Uprising and the British Empire, Cambridge University Press, стр. 3, ISBN 978-1-316-48345-9 
  7. 7,0 7,1 Bayly 1990, стр. 170
  8. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, стр. 169–172, Brown 1994, стр. 85–87, and Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, стр. 100–106
  9. 9,0 9,1 Williams, Chris (2006), A Companion to 19th-Century Britain, John Wiley & Sons, стр. 63, ISBN 978-1-4051-5679-0 
  10. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, стр. 100–103.
  11. ^ Brown 1994, стр. 85–86.
  12. 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 12,4 12,5 Marshall, P. J. (2001), „1783–1870: An expanding empire”, Ур.: P. J. Marshall, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, Cambridge University Press, стр. 50, ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7 

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