Japanske invazije Koreje (1592–1598)

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Japanske invazije Koreje (1592–1598)
The Japanese landing at Busan
Japansko iskrcavanje u Busanu
Vrijeme:23. maj 1592 – 24. decembar 1598
Mjesto:Korejsko poluostrvo
Rezultat:

Korejska i kineska strateška pobeda[1]

  • Povlačenje japanskih vojski nakon vojne stagnacije[2]
Sukobljene strane
Coat of Arms of Joseon Korea.png Čoson
Left-facing dragon pattern on Wanli Emperor's imperial robe.svg Ming
Toyotomi mon.png Tojotomi režim
Jačina

Čoson:
84.500+[3]
300 brodova (200 potopljeno
u početnoj fazi rata)[4]
Ming:
1. (1592–93)
48.000[5][6]
2. (1597–98)
75.000 vojnika (ukljujući
mornarička pojačanja)[7]

Ukupno: ~200.000[8]

Tojotomi režim:
1. (1592)
158.800[9]
(ne računajući mornare)[10]
24.000 musketa[11]
700 transportnih brodova[12]
300 vojnih brodova[13]
2. (1597–98)
141.900[14]
1.000 brodova
(neki naoružani topovima)[15]

Ukupno: ~300.000[9][14]
Žrtve i gubici

Čoson: 205,738+ ubijenih
(uključujući civile)[16]
50.000–60.000 zaroblenih[16]
157 brodova[17]

Ming: ~36.000 ubijenih[18][16]

Tojotomi režim: 80.000[19]

460+ brodova[20]

Japanska invazija Koreje sastojala se od dve odvojene, ali povezane operacije: početna invazija 1592. godine, kratko primirje 1596. i druga invazija 1597. godine. Sukob je okončan 1598. povlačenjem japanskih snaga[1][21] sa Korejskog poluostrva nakon vojne mrtve tačke[22] u južnim primorskim provincijama Koreje.[23]

Invazije je pokrenuo Tojotomi Hidejoši s namerom osvajanja Korejskog poluostrva i Kine, kojima su vladale dinastije Čoson i Ming. Japan je brzo uspeo da zauzme velike delove Korejskog poluostrva, ali doprinos kineskih pojačanja,[24][25][26] kao i napadi Čosonske flote na japansku opskrbnu flotu duž zapadne i južne obale[27][28][29][30][31] prisilili su japanske snage na povlačenje iz Pjongjanga i severnih provincija ka jugu, u Busan i obližnje južne regione. Nakon toga, sa gerilskim ratovima vođeni protiv Japanaca s neredovnim snagama (civilnim milicijama Čosona)[32] i problemima sa snabdevanjem koji su pogađali obe strane, ni japanske, ni združene snage Ming i Čoson nisu uspele da uspostave uspešnu ofanzivu ili steknu bilo kakvu dodatnu teritoriju, što je rezultiralo vojnim zastojem. Prva faza invazije trajala je od 1592. do 1596. godine, i tome su sledili ultimatno neuspešni mirovni pregovori između Japana i Minga između 1596. i 1597. godine.

Godine 1597. je Japan obnovio svoju ofanzivu napavši Koreju drugi put. Obrazac druge invazije je u velikoj meri nalik na prvu. Japanci su imali početne uspehe na kopnu, osvojivši nekoliko gradova i tvrđava, samo da bi bili zaustavljeni i primorani da se povuku u južne primorske oblasti poluostrva. Međutim, združene snage Minga i Čosona nisu mogle da izbace Japance iz njihovih preostalih tvrđava i urovljenih položaja u južnim priobalnim oblastima,[33][34][35] gde su obe strane ponovo bile zaključane u desetomesečnoj vojnoj mrtvoj tački.

Sa Hidejošijevom smrću 1598. godine, ograničenim napretkom na kopnu i stalnim prekidima opskrbnih linija od strane Čosonove mornarice, novo upravno Veće pet poglavara je naredilo japanskim snagama u Koreji da se povuku u Japan. Konačni mirovni pregovori između strana usledili su nakon toga i trajali su nekoliko godina, što je na kraju rezultiralo normalizacijom odnosa.[36]

Reference[уреди]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Lee, Kenneth (1. 1. 1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. стр. 108. ISBN 9780275958237. Приступљено 26. 3. 2015.  "Thus the Korea–Japan War of 1592–1598 came to a conclusion, with the Japanese totally defeated and in full-scale retreat. The Korean victory did not come easily."
  2. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Invasions of Korea 1592–1598, p. 87 "Out of 500 Japanese ships only 50 survived to limp home."
  3. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 269.
  4. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 148.
  5. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 338.
  6. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 305.
  7. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 439.
  8. ^ Swope 2009, стр. 351.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Hawley 2005, стр. 105.
  10. ^ Swope 2009, стр. 68.
  11. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 110.
  12. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 115.
  13. ^ Hawley, стр. 116.
  14. 14,0 14,1 Hawley 2005, стр. 433.
  15. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 446.
  16. 16,0 16,1 16,2 Turnbull 2002, стр. 230.
  17. ^ Siege of Ulsan, 20,000+ killed, https://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E6%98%8E%E5%8F%B2/%E5%8D%B7320 History of the Ming chapter 320 "士卒物故者二萬". Battle of Sacheon (1598), 30,000+ killed, Turnbull, Stephen; Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War 1592–98. London: Cassell & Co, 2002, p. 222.
  18. ^ Turnbull 2002, стр. 222.
  19. ^ Hawley 2005, стр. 547.
  20. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. 2002, p. 229.
  21. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Invasions of Korea 1592–1598, p. 85
  22. ^ History of the Ming chapter 322 Japan "前後七載 (For seven years),喪師數十萬 (Hundreds of thousands of soldiers were killed),糜餉數百萬 (Millions of cost of war was spent),中朝與朝鮮迄無勝算 (There were no chances of victory in China and Korea),至關白死兵禍始休。 (By Hideyoshi's death ended the war.)"
  23. ^ Perez, Louis (2013). „Japan at War: An Encyclopedia”. Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. стр. 141. ISBN 9781598847413.  "Korean and Chinese forces were able to hold off the Japanese troops and confine the fighting to the southern provinces."
  24. ^ „明史/卷238 – 維基文庫,自由的圖書館”. zh.wikisource.org. 
  25. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. 2002, pp. 137–43, 204–27.
  26. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. 2002, p. 134, "(Korean) war minister Yi Hang-bok pointed out that assistance from China was the only way Korea could survive."
  27. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (20. 11. 2012). The Samurai Invasion of Korea 1592–98. Osprey Publishing. стр. 17. ISBN 9781782007128. Приступљено 25. 3. 2015.  "His naval victories were to prove decisive in the Japanese defeat, although Yi was to die during his final battle in 1598."
  28. ^ Perez, Louis G. (2013). Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. стр. 140. ISBN 978-1-59884-741-3. »Just as a complete Japanese victory appeared imminent, Admiral Yi entered the war and quickly turned the tide.« 
  29. ^ Perez, Louis (2013). „Japan at War: An Encyclopedia”. Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. стр. 140—41. ISBN 9781598847413. "Yi's successes gave Korea complete control of the sea lanes around the peninsula, and the Korean navy was able to intercept most of the supplies and communications between Japan and Korea"
  30. ^ Elisonas, Jurgis. "The inseparable trinity: Japan's relations with China and Korea." The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 4. Ed. John Whitney Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. p. 278.
  31. ^ Lee, Ki-baik. A New History of Korea. Trans. Edward W. Wagner and Edward J. Schultz. Seoul: Ilchokak, 1984. p. 212.
  32. ^ Lewis, James (5. 12. 2014). The East Asian War, 1592–1598: International Relations, Violence and Memory. Routledge. стр. 160—61. ISBN 9781317662747. Приступљено 2. 5. 2015.  "The righteous armies that appeared in 1592 smashed the local rule distributed across Korea's eight provinces by the Japanese military. The righteous army activities were one of the most important factors for the frustration of the Toyotomi regime's ambition to subjugate Ming China and extend dominion over Korea."
  33. ^ Annals of the Joseon Dynasty Korean language http://sillok.history.go.kr/id/kna_13110012_007
  34. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. 2002, p. 222. The Chinese Ming forces retreated with 30,000 losses
  35. ^ https://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E6%98%8E%E5%8F%B2/%E5%8D%B7320 History of the Ming chapter 320 士卒物故者二萬. 20000 losses
  36. ^ Turnbull, Stephen; Samurai Invasions of Korea 1592–1598, pp. 5–7

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