Ramana Maharši

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Ramana Maharši
Sri Ramana Maharshi in his late 60s
Ramana Maharši in svojim kasnim 60-im
Puno imeRamana Maharshi
Ime po rođenjuVenkataraman Ijer
Druga imenaVenkataraman Iyer
Datum rođenja30 decembar 1879(1879-12-30)
Mesto rođenjaTiručuzi, Virudunagar
 Indija
Datum smrti14. april 1950.(1950-04-14) (70 god.)
Mesto smrtiSri Ramana Ašram, Tiruvanamalaj, Tamil Nadu
 Indija
PrebivališteIndija
Državljanstvoindijsko
Zanimanjefilozof

Ramana Maharši /ˈrʌmənə ˈməhʌrʃi/ (30. decembar 1879 – 14. april 1950) bio je indijski mudrac[1] i jivanmukta (oslobođeno biće).[2] On je rođen kao Venkataraman Ijer, ali je poznatiji po imenu Bagavan Sri Ramana Maharši.[3][note 1]

On je rođen je u sadašnjem Tiručuliju, Tamil Nadu, Indija. Godine 1895. u njemu se probudila privlačnost prema svetom brdu Arunačala i 63 Najanmara se probudilo u njemu,[4] a 1896. godine, u svojoj 16 godini, imao je „iskustvo smrti” kad je postao svestan „struje” ili „sile” (avesam) koju je prepoznao kao svoje istinsko „ja” ili „biće”,[web 1][5] i koju je kasnije identifikovao sa „lični Bog, ili Isvara”,[web 1] tj. Šiva. To je rezultiralo stanjem koje je kasnije opisao kao „stanje uma Isvare ili jnani”.[web 1][note 2] Šest nedelja kasnije napustio je kuću svog ujaka u Maduraju i putovao do svete planine Arunačala, u Tiruvannamalaj, gde je preuzeo ulogu sanjasina (iako nije formalno iniciran), i ostao je tu do kraja života.

Ubrzo je privukao bakte koji su ga smatrali avatarom i koji su dolazili kod njega za daršan („vid Božji”), a u kasnijim godinama oko njega je rastao ašram, gde su posetioci dobijali upadesa („duhovno poučavanje”)[7] putem tihog sedenja u njegovoj blizini postavljajući pitanja.[8] Od tridesetih godina prošlog veka njegovo učenje je popularizovano na Zapadu, što je rezultiralo svetskim priznanjem kao prosvetljenog bića.[9]

Ramana Maharši je odobrio brojne staze i prakse,[3] ali je preporučio samoispitivanje kao glavno sredstvo za uklanjanje neznanja i povinovanja samosvesti,[web 2][10] zajedno sa bakti (predanošću) ili predajom sebi.[web 2]

Radovi[уреди | уреди извор]

Književno delo[уреди | уреди извор]

  • Gambhiram Sheshayya, Vichāra Sangraham, "Self-Enquiry". Answers to questions, compiled in 1901, published in dialogue-form, republished as essay in 1939 as A Cathechism of Enquiry. Also published in 1944 in Heinrich Zimmer's Der Weg zum Selbst.[11]
  • Sivaprakasam Oillai, Nān Yār?, "Who am I?". Answers to questions, compiled in 1902, first published in 1923.[11][web 3]
  • Five Hymns to Arunachala:
    • Akshara Mana Malai, "The Marital Garland of Letters". In 1914, at the request of a devotee, Ramana wrote Akshara Mana Malai for his devotees to sing while on their rounds for alms. It's a hymn in praise of Shiva, manifest as the mountain Arunachala. The hymn consists of 108 stanzas composed in poetic Tamil.[web 4]
    • Navamani Mālai, "The Necklet of Nine Gems".
    • Arunāchala Patikam, "Eleven Verses to Sri Arunachala".
    • Arunāchala Ashtakam, "Eight Stanzas to Sri Arunachala".
    • Arunāchala Pañcharatna, "Five Stanzas to Sri Arunachala".
  • Sri Muruganar and Sri Ramana Maharshi, Upadesha Sāra (Upadesha Undiyar), "The Essence of Instruction". In 1927 Muruganar started a poem on the Gods, but asked Ramana to write thirty verses on upadesha, "teaching" or "instruction".[12]
  • Ramana Maharshi, Ulladu narpadu, "Forty Verses on Reality". Written in 1928.[13] First English translation and commentary by S.S. Cohen in 1931.
  • Ullada Nārpadu Anubandham, "Reality in Forty Verses: Supplement". Forty stanzas, fifteen of which are being written by Ramana. The other twenty-five are translations of various Sanskrit-texts.[14]
  • Sri Muruganar and Sri Ramana Maharshi (1930s), Ramana Puranam.[web 5]
  • Ekātma Pañchakam, "Five Verses on the Self". Written in 1947, at the request of a female devotee.[15]

Snimljeni razgovori[уреди | уреди извор]

Several collections of recorded talks, in which Sri Ramana used Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam,[3] have been published. Those are based on written transcripts, which were "hurriedly written down in English by his official interpreters".[3][note 3]

Sećanja[уреди | уреди извор]

  • Frank Hamfris, britanski policajac stationiran u Indiji, posetio je Ramana Maharšija 1911. godine i pisao je članke o njemu, koji su bili prvo objavljeni u časopisu The International Psychic Gazette 1913. godine.[16][note 4]
  • Paul Brunton (1935), A Search in Secret India. This book introduced Ramana Maharshi to a western audience.[17]
  • Cohen, S.S. (2003). Guru Ramana. Sri Ramanashram.  First published 1956.
  • Chadwick, Major A. W. (1961). A Sadhu's Reminiscences of Ramana Maharshi (PDF). Sri Ramanashram. 
  • Nagamma, Suri (1973). Letters from Ramanasram by Suri Nagamma. Tiruvannamalai: Sriramanasasram. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 30. 10. 2019. Приступљено 11. 11. 2019. 
  • Kunjuswami, Living with the Master. Recordings of Kunjuswami's experiences with Ramana Maharshi from 1920 on.[web 7] ISBN 81-88018-99-6
  • G. V. Subbaramayya, Sri Ramana Reminiscences. "The account covers the years between 1933 and 1950".[web 8]

Dokumentarni filmovi[уреди | уреди извор]

Napomene[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Bagavan znači Bog, Sri je počasna titula, Ramana je kratka forma imena Venkataraman, i Maharši znači 'veliki vidovnjak' u sanskritu. To ime mu je dao 1907. jedan od njegovih prvih posvećenika, Ganapati Muni.
  2. ^ Hajnrih Cimer koristi izraz „intuicija prosvetljenih”. Ramana, kako je citirao Cimer: „Kada sam kasnije u Tiruvanamalaju slušao kako se čita Ribu Gita i takvi sveti tekstovi, shvatio sam te stvari i otkrio da su te knjige nazvale i analizirale, ono što sam pre toga nehotice osetio, a da nisam bio u mogućnosti da to imenujem ili analiziram. U jeziku ovih knjiga mogao bih označiti stanje u kome sam našao sebe nakon buđenja kao 'očišćeno razumevanje' (šudam manas) ili „Uvid” (Vijnana): kao intuicija prosvetljenih”.[6]
  3. ^ David Godman: "Because some of the interpreters were not completely fluent in English some of the transcriptions were either ungrammatical or written in a kind of stilted English which occasionally makes Sri Ramana sound like a pompous Victorian."[3]
  4. ^ See Frank H. Humphreys, Glimpses of the Life and Teachings of Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi for Humphreys writings on Ramana Maharshi.
  1. ^ а б в David godman (7 May 2008), Bhagavan's death experience, The Mountain Path, 1981, pp. 67–69
  2. ^ а б David Godman, The unity of surrender and Self-enquiry
  3. ^ Who am I? – pdf
  4. ^ Self Inquiry (19. 6. 2012). „Sri Ramana Maharshi's Aksharamanamalai.m4v”. YouTube. Приступљено 4. 8. 2012. 
  5. ^ Ramana Puranam
  6. ^ Society of Abidance in Truth, Origin of Spiritual Instruction
  7. ^ „Veda Yoga Books, Living with the Master. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 04. 03. 2016. Приступљено 11. 11. 2019. 
  8. ^ „sriramanamaharshi.org, Sri Ramana Reminiscences. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 04. 03. 2016. Приступљено 11. 11. 2019. 

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Sharma 2006.
  2. ^ Fort 1998, стр. 134-151.
  3. ^ а б в г д Godman 1985.
  4. ^ Osborne 2002, стр. 5-6.
  5. ^ Godman 1985, стр. 4.
  6. ^ Zimmer 1948, стр. 23.
  7. ^ Osborne 1959.
  8. ^ Godman 1985, стр. 5.
  9. ^ Lucas 2011.
  10. ^ Zimmer 1948.
  11. ^ а б Renard 1999, стр. 19-20.
  12. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 24.
  13. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 25.
  14. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 26.
  15. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 27.
  16. ^ Osborne 2002, стр. 106, 111.
  17. ^ Ebert 2006, стр. 140.

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Spoljašnje veze[уреди | уреди извор]