Senarski sultanat

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Иди на навигацију Иди на претрагу
Plavi sultanat / Fundžski sultanat

السلطنة الزرقاء
As-Saltana az-Zarqa
1504–1821
Fundžski brend (al-wasm) of Senar
Fundžski brend (al-wasm)
Fundžski sultanat na svom vrhuncu oko 1700.
Fundžski sultanat na svom vrhuncu oko 1700.
StatusKonfederacija sultanata i zavisnih plemenskih poglavarstva pod Senarskim sizerenstvom[1]
PrestonicaSenar
Zajednički jeziciarapski (lingva franka i jezici islama, sve više govorni jezik)[2]
nubijski jezici (maternji jezik, sve više zamenjen arapskim)[3]
Religija
sunizam,[4]
koptsko hrišćanstvo
VladaMonarhija
Sultan 
• 1504–1533/4
Amara Dunka (prvi)
• 1805–1821
Badi VII (zadnji)
ZakonodavstvoVeliki savet[5]
Istorijska eraRani moderni period
• Uspostavljen
1504
14. jun 1821
13. februar 1841.
Valutabarter[c]
Prethodnik
Naslednik
Alodija
Egipatski pašaluk
Danas deo Sudan
 Eritreja
 Etiopija
^ a. Muhamedu Aliju Egipatskom je dodeljena nenasledna uprava Sudana od 1841 od strane otomanskog firmana.[6]

^ b. Procena za celokupnu oblast koju obuhvata današnji Sudan.[7]

^ c. Fundžski sultanate nije imao kovanice i na tržnicama nisu korišćene kovanice kao oblik plaćanja.[8] Frencuski hirurg J. C. Ponse, koji je posetio Senar 1699. godine, pominje upotrebu stranih kovanica kao što su španski reali.[9]

Fundžski sultanat, takođe poznat kao Fundžistan, Sultanat Senara (po prestonici Senaru) ili Plavi sultanat usled tradicionalne sudanske konvencije nazivanja crnih ljudi plavim (arap. السلطنة الزرقاء al-Sulṭanah al-Zarqā)[10] bila je monarhija na teritoriji današnjeg Sudana, severozapadno od Eritreje i zapadno od Etiopije. Fundžski narod ju je osnovao 1504. godine. Država je brzo preobraćena u islam, mada je prihvatanje te vere bilo samo nominalno. Dok se u 18. veku nije uzeo maha ortodoksiniji islam, država je ostala „afričko-nubijsko carstvo sa muslimanskom fasadom”.[11] Svoj vrhunac je dostigala krajem 17. veka, i počela je da propada u 18. veku. Godine 1821. poslednji sultan, znatno smanjene moći, bez borbe se predao Osmanskoj egipatskoj invaziji.

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ "The Funj". Sudan: A country study (Helen Chapin Metz, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (jun 1991).
  2. ^ McHugh, Neil (1994). Holymen of the Blue Nile: The Making of an Arab-Islamic Community in the Nilotic Sudan, 1500–1850. Series in Islam and Society in Africa. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. стр. 9. ISBN 978-0-8101-1069-4. »The spread of Arabic flowed not only from the dispersion of Arabs but from the unification of the Nile by a government, the Funj sultanate, that utilized Arabic as an official means of communication, and from the use of Arabic as a trade language.« 
  3. ^ James 2008, стр. 68-69.
  4. ^ Trimingham, J. Spencer (1996). „Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa, till the 19th century”. The Last Great Muslim Empires. History of the Muslim World, 3. Abbreviated and adapted by F. R. C. Bagley (2nd изд.). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers. стр. 167. ISBN 978-1-55876-112-4. »The date when the Funj rulers adopted Islam is not known, but must have been fairly soon after the foundation of Sennār, because they then entered into relations with Muslim groups over a wide area.« 
  5. ^ Welch, Galbraith (1949). North African Prelude: The First Seven Thousand Years (snippet view). New York: W. Morrow. стр. 463. OCLC 413248. Приступљено 12. 8. 2010. »The government was semirepublican; when a king died the great council picked a successor from among the royal children. Then—presumably to keep the peace—they killed all the rest.« 
  6. ^ فرمان سلطاني إلى محمد علي بتقليده حكم السودان بغير حق التوارث [Sultanic Firman to Muhammad Ali Appointing Him Ruler of the Sudan Without Hereditary Rights] (на језику: Arabic). Bibliotheca Alexandrina: Memory of Modern Egypt Digital Archive. Приступљено 12. 8. 2010. 
  7. ^ Avakov, Alexander V. (2010). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics: World Population, GDP, and PPP. New York: Algora Publishing. стр. 18. ISBN 978-0-87586-750-2. 
  8. ^ Anderson, Julie R. (2008). „A Mamluk Coin from Kulubnarti, Sudan” (PDF). British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (10): 68. Приступљено 12. 8. 2010. »Much further to the south, the Funj Sultanate based in Sennar (1504/5–1820), did not mint coins and the markets did not normally use coinage as a form of exchange. Foreign coins themselves were commodities and frequently kept for jewellery. Units of items such as gold, grain, iron, cloth and salt had specific values and were used for trade, particularly on a national level.« 
  9. ^ Pinkerton, John (1814). „Poncet's Journey to Abyssinia”. A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World. Volume 15. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. стр. 71. OCLC 1397394. 
  10. ^ Ogot 1999, p. 91
  11. ^ Loimeier 2013, стр. 141.

Literatura[уреди]

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]

Координате: 15°39′26″ СГШ; 32°20′53″ ИГД / 15.6572° СГШ; 32.3480° ИГД / 15.6572; 32.3480