Пони (коњ)

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
За другу употребу, погледајте страницу Пони.
Пони, врста хајленд

Пони је било која од неколико раса малог коња, ретко вишег од 144 cm и познатог по својој питомости и издржљивости. У најпознатије расе спадају шетланд, затим елегантан и тврдокоран велшки пони, велшки коб високог каса, ексмур и дартмур који потичу са енглеских пашњака на којима се узгајају и коњи за поло, а ту је и хајленд, пуначка и сива врста коња за јахање.

Depending on the context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the withers, or a small horse with a specific conformation and temperament. Compared to a larger horse, a pony may have a thicker coat, mane and tail, with proportionally shorter legs, a wider barrel, heavier bone, a thicker neck and a shorter, broader head. The word pony derives from the old French poulenet, meaning foal, a young, immature horse.[1]:1041

Дефиниција[уреди | уреди извор]

Ждребе понија. Пони ждребад је мања од стандардне коњске ждребади, али обе сорте имају дуге ноге и мала тела.

За многе облике такмичења, званична дефиниција понија је коњ који има мање од 14,2 шака (58 инча, 147 cm) у рамену. Стандардни коњи су висине 14,2 или више. Међународна федерација за коњичке спортове дефинише званичну граничну тачку на 148 cm (58,3 ин; 14,2 шака) без ципела и 149 cm (58,66 ин; 14,2 1⁄2 шака) са потковицама, иако је дозвољава маргина за такмичарско мерење до 150 cm (59,1 ин; 14,3 шака) без потковица, или 151 cm (59,45 ин; 14,3 1⁄2 шака) са потковицама.[2] Међутим, израз „пони” се може користити уопштено (или афективно) за било ког малог коња, без обзира на његову стварну величину или расу. Штавише, неке расе коња могу имати поједине јединке који сазревају испод те висине, али се и даље називају „коњи“ и дозвољено им је да се такмиче као коњи. У Аустралији, коњи који мере од 14 до 15 х (142 до 152 cm; 56 до 60 инча) познати су као „галовеј”, а понији у Аустралији имају мање од 14 шака (56 инча, 142 cm).[3]

Историја[уреди | уреди извор]

A pony near a mountain

Ponies originally developed as a landrace adapted to a harsh natural environment, and were considered part of the "draft" subtype typical of Northern Europe. At one time, it was hypothesized that they may have descended from a wild "draft" subspecies of Equus ferus.[4] Studies of mitochondrial DNA (which is passed on though the female line) indicate that a large number of wild mares have contributed to modern domestic breeds;[5][6] in contrast, studies of y-DNA (passed down the male line) suggest that there was possibly just one single male ancestor of all domesticated breeds.[7] Domestication of the horse probably first occurred in the Eurasian steppes with horses of between 13 hands (52 inches, 132 cm) to over 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm),[8] and as horse domestication spread, the male descendants of the original stallion went on to be bred with local wild mares.[7][8]

Domesticated ponies of all breeds originally developed mainly from the need for a working animal that could fulfill specific local draft and transportation needs while surviving in harsh environments. The usefulness of the pony was noted by farmers who observed that a pony could outperform a draft horse on small farms.[9]

By the 20th century, many pony breeds had Arabian and other blood added to make a more refined pony suitable for riding.[10]

Употребе[уреди | уреди извор]

An Australian Pony shown under saddle

In many parts of the world ponies are used as working animals, as pack animals and for pulling various horse-drawn vehicles. They are seen in many different equestrian pursuits. Some breeds, such as the Hackney pony, are primarily used for driving, while other breeds, such as the Connemara pony and Australian Pony, are used primarily for riding. Others, such as the Welsh pony, are used for both riding and driving. There is no direct correlation between a horse's size and its inherent athletic ability.[11]

Карактеристике[уреди | уреди извор]

The Shetland pony is one of the smallest pony breeds, but is very strong

Ponies are often distinguished by their phenotype, a stocky body, dense bone, round shape and well-sprung ribs. They have a short head, large eyes and small ears. In addition to being smaller than a horse, their legs are proportionately shorter. They have strong hooves and grow a heavier hair coat, seen in a thicker mane and tail as well as a particularly heavy winter coat.[12]

Pony breeds have developed all over the world, particularly in cold and harsh climates where hardy, sturdy working animals were needed. They are remarkably strong for their size. Breeds such as the Connemara pony are recognized for their ability to carry a full-sized adult rider. Pound for pound ponies can pull and carry more weight than a horse.[12] Draft-type ponies are able to pull loads significantly greater than their own weight, with larger ponies capable of pulling loads comparable to those pulled by full-sized draft horses, and even very small ponies are able to pull as much as 450 percent of their own weight.[13]

Nearly all pony breeds are very hardy, easy keepers that share the ability to thrive on a more limited diet than that of a regular-sized horse, requiring half the hay for their weight as a horse, and often not needing grain at all. However, for the same reason, they are also more vulnerable to laminitis and Cushing's syndrome. They may also have problems with hyperlipemia.[12]

Ponies are generally considered intelligent and friendly, though sometimes they also are described as stubborn or cunning.[12] The differences of opinion often result from an individual pony's degree of proper training. Ponies trained by inexperienced individuals, or only ridden by beginners, can turn out to be spoiled because their riders typically lack the experience base to correct bad habits. Properly trained ponies are appropriate mounts for children who are learning to ride. Larger ponies can be ridden by adults, as ponies are usually strong for their size.[12]

Слични или слично звани коњи[уреди | уреди извор]

The full-sized horses used for polo are called "polo ponies"

Some horse breeds are not defined as ponies, even when they have some animals that measure under 14,2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). This is usually due to body build, traditional uses and overall physiology. Breeds that are considered horses regardless of height include the Arabian horse, American Quarter Horse and the Morgan horse, all of which have individual members both over and under 14,2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm).

Many horse breeds have some pony characteristics, such as small size, a heavy coat, a thick mane or heavy bone, but are considered to be horses.[12] In cases such as these, there can be considerable debate over whether to call certain breeds "horses" or "ponies." However, individual breed registries usually are the arbiters of such debates, weighing the relative horse and pony characteristics of a breed. In some breeds, such as the Welsh pony, the horse-versus-pony controversy is resolved by creating separate divisions for consistently horse-sized animals, such as the "Section D" Welsh Cob.

Some horses may be pony height due to environment more than genetics. For example, the Chincoteague pony, a feral horse that lives on Assateague Island off the coast of Virginia, often matures to the height of an average small horse when raised from a foal under domesticated conditions.[14]

There is debate over whether the feral Chincoteague ponies of Assateague Island are horses or ponies

Conversely, the term "pony" is occasionally used to describe horses of normal height. Horses used for polo are often called "polo ponies" regardless of height, even though they are often of Thoroughbred breeding and often well over 14,2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). American Indian tribes also have the tradition of referring to their horses as "ponies," when speaking in English, even though many of the Mustang horses they used in the 19th century were close to or over 14,2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm), and most horses owned and bred by Native peoples today are of full horse height. Non-racing horses at racetracks that are used to lead the racehorses, ponying them, are called "pony horses".[15]

Референце[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ A.M. Macdonald (editor) (1972). Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. London: Chambers. ISBN 055010206X.
  2. ^ "PONY MEASUREMENT 2007 30 January 2007 " Explanation of Article 3103.1, FInternational Federation for Equestrian Sport Web site, Accessed October 7, 2009 Архивирано 26 јул 2011 на сајту Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Owlet, Lorna and Phlip Mathews, Ponies in Australia, Milsons Point: 1979
  4. ^ Bennett, Deb (1998). Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship (First изд.). Solvang, CA: Amigo Publications, Inc. стр. 7. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6. OCLC 39709067. 
  5. ^ Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jürgen; Olek, Klaus (6. 8. 2002). „Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse”. PNAS. 99 (16): 10905—10910. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9910905J. PMC 125071Слободан приступ. PMID 12130666. doi:10.1073/pnas.152330099Слободан приступ. 
  6. ^ Widespread; Horse Lineages, Domestic (2001). „Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages”. Science. 291 (5503): 474—7. Bibcode:2001Sci...291..474V. PMID 11161199. doi:10.1126/science.291.5503.474. 
  7. ^ а б Lindgren; et al. (2004). „Limited number of patrilines in horse domestication” (PDF). Nature Genetics. 36 (4): 335—336. PMID 15034578. doi:10.1038/ng1326Слободан приступ. Архивирано из оригинала (PDF) на датум 2010-11-17. 
  8. ^ а б Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. стр. 196—197, 202. ISBN 978-0-691-05887-0. 
  9. ^ Smith, E.C.A. "The Pony Useful" Country Life in America, volume 29. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1916 pp.46-47
  10. ^ Sponenberg, D. Phillip (1996). „The Proliferation of Horse Breeds”. Horses Through Time (First изд.). Boulder, CO: Roberts Rinehart Publishers. стр. 155, 170–173. ISBN 1-57098-060-8. OCLC 36179575. 
  11. ^ Barakat, Christine. "Why Size Matters." Equus, October 2007, Issue 361, pp. 36-42
  12. ^ а б в г д ђ „Pony Power!”. јануар 2001. 
  13. ^ McNeill, Erin. "Ponies at Boone County Fair pull their weight and then some" Missourian, July 27, 2010 Архивирано јануар 19, 2013 на сајту Archive.today
  14. ^ „Assateague National Seashore - Wild Horses”. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 2010-05-13. Приступљено 2010-05-10. 
  15. ^ Gantz, Tracy (2. 5. 2019). „The Track Pony: A Racehorse's Best Friend”. The Horse. 

Литература[уреди | уреди извор]

Спољашње везе[уреди | уреди извор]