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Agronomija — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|Наука о производњи и коришћењу биљака}}
[[Датотека:Research- alternative crops.jpg|мини|150px|Uzimanje uzoraka.]]
[[Датотека:Research- alternative crops.jpg|мини|250px|Uzimanje uzoraka.]]

'''Agronomija''' (od grčke reči ἀγρός — polje i νόμος — zakon) je nauka i tehnologija o obradi zemlje radi proizvodnje ljudske i stočne [[hrana|hrane]], [[Обновљиви извори енергије|goriva]], kao i niza drugih proizvoda. Agronomija obuhvata aktivnosti u oblastima biljne genetike, biljne [[fiziologija|fiziologije]], [[meteorologija|meteorologije]], i nauke o zemljištu. Agronomija je primena kombinacije nauka, među kojima su [[биологија|biologija]], [[hemija]], [[ekonomija]], [[ekologija]], [[nauke o Zemlji]], i [[genetika]]. Agronomija se pored proizvodnje hrane bavi razvojem zdravije hrane, i upravljanjem utjecaja [[poljoprivreda|poljoprivrede]] na [[Животна средина|okolinu]].<ref>-{[http://www.ImAnAgronomist.net What is agronomy]}-</ref>
'''Agronomija''' (od grčke reči ἀγρός — polje i νόμος — zakon) je nauka i tehnologija o obradi zemlje radi proizvodnje ljudske i stočne [[hrana|hrane]], [[Обновљиви извори енергије|goriva]], kao i niza drugih proizvoda. Agronomija obuhvata aktivnosti u oblastima biljne genetike, biljne [[fiziologija|fiziologije]], [[meteorologija|meteorologije]], i nauke o zemljištu. Agronomija je primena kombinacije nauka, među kojima su [[биологија|biologija]], [[hemija]], [[ekonomija]], [[ekologija]], [[nauke o Zemlji]], i [[genetika]]. Agronomija se pored proizvodnje hrane bavi razvojem zdravije hrane, i upravljanjem utjecaja [[poljoprivreda|poljoprivrede]] na [[Животна средина|okolinu]].<ref>-{[http://www.ImAnAgronomist.net What is agronomy]}-</ref>


Agronomija se može podeliti na više specijalizovanih oblasti: [[Planiranje setve i sadnje|rotacija useva]]<ref>{{cite journal |author=Powell, J.M., William, T.O. | title=An overview of mixed farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa |journal=Livestock and Sustainable Nutrient Cycling in Mixed Farming Systems of Sub-Saharan Africa: Proceedings of an International Conference, International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) |volume=2 |year=1993| pages = 21–36 }}</ref>, [[Наводњавање|</u>irigacija]] i [[drenaža]], [[oplemenjivanje bilja]]<ref>-{Breeding Field Crops. 1995. Sleper and Poehlman. Page 3}-</ref>, [[fiziologija biljaka]]<ref name="Salisbury & Ross 1992">-{Salisbury, Frank B. & Cleon W. Ross, 1992. ''Plant physiology''. {{page1|edition=4th|location=Belmont, California|publisher=Wadsworth Publishing|year=|isbn=978-0-534-15162-1|pages=}}}-</ref>, plodnost i klasifikacija zemljišta, [[herbicidi|kontrola korova]], kontrola [[Insekticid|insekata]] i [[Deratizacija|štetočina]]<ref>-{[http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/reregistration/rodenticides/ Rodenticides | Pesticides | US EPA]}-</ref>.
Agronomija se može podeliti na više specijalizovanih oblasti: [[Planiranje setve i sadnje|rotacija useva]]<ref>{{cite journal |author=Powell, J.M., William, T.O. | title=An overview of mixed farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa |journal=Livestock and Sustainable Nutrient Cycling in Mixed Farming Systems of Sub-Saharan Africa: Proceedings of an International Conference, International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) |volume=2 |year=1993| pages = 21–36 }}</ref>, [[Наводњавање|irigacija]] i [[drenaža]], [[oplemenjivanje bilja]]<ref>-{Breeding Field Crops. 1995. Sleper and Poehlman. Page 3}-</ref>, [[fiziologija biljaka]]<ref name="Salisbury & Ross 1992">-{Salisbury, Frank B. & Cleon W. Ross, 1992. ''Plant physiology''. {{page1|edition=4th|location=Belmont, California|publisher=Wadsworth Publishing|year=|isbn=978-0-534-15162-1|pages=}}}-</ref>, plodnost i klasifikacija zemljišta, [[herbicidi|kontrola korova]], kontrola [[Insekticid|insekata]] i [[Deratizacija|štetočina]]<ref>-{[http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/reregistration/rodenticides/ Rodenticides | Pesticides | US EPA]}-</ref>.

== Oplemenjivanje biljaka ==
{{Main-lat|Oplemenjivanje biljaka}}
[[Image:Research- alternative crops.jpg|thumb|left|Agronom, uzorkuje probnu parcelu [[lan]]a.]]

Ova oblast agronomije uključuje [[selective breeding|selektivno oplemenjivanje]] biljaka za proizvodnju najboljih [[crop|useva]] za različite uslove.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last1=Hartung|first1=Frank|last2=Schiemann|first2=Joachim |title=Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU|journal=The Plant Journal|volume=78|issue=5|pages=742–752|doi=10.1111/tpj.12413|pmid=24330272|year=2014|doi-access=free}}</ref> Oplemenjivanje biljaka je povećalo [[crop yield|prinose useva]] i poboljšalo [[nutritional value|hranljivu vrednost]] brojnih useva, uključujući [[maize|kukuruz]], [[soybeans|soju]] i [[wheat|pšenicu]].<ref>{{cite book | title= Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production Volume I | chapter= Plant Breeding and Genetics | editor=Willy H. Verheye | date=2010 | publisher=Eolss Publishers | isbn=978-1-84826-367-3 | url=https://www.eolss.net/ebooklib/bookinfo/soils-plant-growth-crop-production.aspx | page=185}}</ref> To je takođe rezultiralo razvojem novih vrsta biljaka. Na primer, [[Hybrid (biology)|hibridno]] zrno po imenu [[triticale|tritikal]] proizvedeno je ukrštanjem raži i pšenice. Tritikal sadrži više upotrebljivih [[protein]]a nego raž ili pšenica. Agronomija je takođe bila ključna za istraživanje proizvodnje voća i povrća.<ref name="Hayes-et-al-2003">{{cite book |editor=Roland von Bothmer |editor2=Theo van Hintum |editor3=Helmut Knüpffer |editor4=Kazuhiro Sato | title=Diversity in Barley (''Hordeum vulgare'') | publisher=[[Elsevier]] | publication-place=Amsterdam Boston | year=2003 | isbn=978-0-444-50585-9 | oclc=162130976 | pages=201–226 | chapter=Genetic diversity for quantitatively inherited agronomic and malting quality traits | last1=Hayes | first1=Patrick M. | last2=Castro | first2=Ariel | last3=Marquez-Cedillo | first3=Luis | last4=Corey | first4=Ann | last5=Henson | first5=Cynthia | last6=Jones | first6=Berne L. | last7=Kling | first7=Jennifer | last8=Mather | first8=Diane | last9=Matus | first9=Ivan | last10=Rossi | first10=Carlos | last11=Sato | first11=Kazuhiro |doi=10.1016/S0168-7972(03)80012-9 | issn=0168-7972}} {{ISBN|1865843830}}</ref> Pored toga, za razvoj travnjaka, korišćenje oplemenjivanja biljaka rezultiralo je smanjenjem potrebe za unosom đubriva i vode (zahtevima), kao i vrstama travnjaka koji pokazuju povećanu otpornost na bolesti.

== Biotehnologija ==
[[Image:Research-mapping plant genomes.jpg|thumb|An agronomist mapping a plant [[genome]].]]
{{rut}}
Agronomists use [[biotechnology]] to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristics.<ref>Georgetown International Environmental Law Review</ref> Biotechnology is often a laboratory activity requiring field testing of new crop varieties that are developed.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Biotechnology |url=https://goldbook.iupac.org/terms/view/B00666 |website=IUPAC Goldbook |year=2014 |doi=10.1351/goldbook.B00666 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006798043|title=Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett-, und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe: für naturwissenschaftlich gebildete Landwirte verfasst|first=Karl.|last=Ereky|date=June 8, 1919|publisher=P. Parey|via=Hathi Trust}}</ref>

In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is being applied increasingly for novel uses other than food.<ref>[http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=1188&content_id=CTP_003377&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=5a1c54a6-ff5a-4f69-84c1-763835d11162 Biotechnology] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121107072612/http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true |date=November 7, 2012 }}. Portal.acs.org. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://nvsrochd.gov.in/s_club/biology/ch11_bilas.pdf |title=BIOTECHNOLOGY-PRINCIPLES & PROCESSES |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150807020753/http://nvsrochd.gov.in/s_club/biology/ch11_bilas.pdf |archive-date=August 7, 2015 |access-date=December 29, 2014}}</ref> For example, [[oilseed]] is at present used mainly for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for [[detergent]]s, substitute fuels and [[petrochemical]]s.

== Nauka o zemljištu ==
{{Main|Poljoprivredna nauka o zemljištu}}

Agronomists study sustainable ways to make [[soil]]s more productive and profitable.<ref>Doran, J., and T. Sims. Renewed vision for Earth Scientists “Sustaining Earth and its People - Translating Science into Practice. Geotimes, July: 5, 2002.</ref> They classify soils and analyze them to determine whether they contain nutrients vital for plant growth. Common macronutrients analyzed include compounds of [[nitrogen]], [[phosphorus]], [[potassium]], [[calcium]], [[magnesium]], and [[sulfur]]. Soil is also assessed for several micronutrients, like [[zinc]] and [[boron]]. The percentage of organic matter, [[soil pH]], and nutrient holding capacity ([[cation exchange capacity]]) are tested in a regional laboratory. Agronomists will interpret these laboratory reports and make recommendations to modify soil nutrients for optimal plant growth.<ref>{{cite book|last=Hoeft|first=Robert G.|title=Modern Corn and Soybean Production|year=2000|publisher=MCSP Publications |asin=B0006RLD8U <!--|isbn=00108770--> |pages=107 to 171}}</ref>

===Soil conservation===
Additionally, agronomists develop methods to preserve soil and decrease the effects of [erosion] by wind and water. For example, a technique known as [[contour plowing]] may be used to prevent soil erosion and conserve rainfall. Researchers of agronomy also seek ways to use the soil more effectively for solving other problems. Such problems include the disposal of human and animal [[manure]], [[water pollution]], and [[pesticide]] accumulation in the soil, as well as preserving the soil for future generations such as the burning of paddocks after crop production. Pasture management techniques include [[no-till farming]], planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, and using contour drains of depths as much as 1 metre.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Rss4DwAAQBAJ&q=no-tilling+crops%2C+soil-binding+grasses+and+contour+drains&pg=PA236|title=Fundamentals of Agriculture (ICAR-NET, JRF, SRF, CSIR-NET, UPSC & IFS)|last1=Arya|first1=R. L.|last2=Arya|first2=S.|last3=Arya|first3=Renu|last4=Kumar|first4=J.|date=2015-01-01|publisher=Scientific Publishers|isbn=978-93-86102-36-2|language=en}}</ref>

== Agroekologija ==

[[Agroecology]] is the management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental applications.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.agron.iastate.edu/academic/undergraduate/options/agro_ecol.aspx
|title=Iowa State University: Undergraduate Program - Agroecology <!--|access-date=25 December 2007-->
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081007045315/http://www.agron.iastate.edu/academic/undergraduate/options/agro_ecol.aspx
|archive-date=7 October 2008}}</ref> This topic is associated closely with work for [[sustainable agriculture]], [[organic farming]], and [[Food systems|alternative food systems]] and the development of alternative cropping systems.

== Teoretsko modelovanje ==

[[Theoretical production ecology]] is the quantitative study of the growth of crops.<ref>[http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03505.x/full Amthor JS (2010) From sunlight to phytomass: on the potential efficiency of converting solar radiation to phyto-energy. New Phytologist 188:939-959]</ref> The plant is treated as a kind of biological factory, which processes [[light]], [[carbon dioxide]], [[water]], and [[Plant nutrition|nutrients]] into harvestable products. The main parameters considered are temperature, sunlight, standing crop biomass, plant production distribution, and nutrient and water supply.

== Vidi još ==
* [[Ratarstvo]]
* [[Povrtarstvo]]


== Reference ==
== Reference ==
Ред 8: Ред 46:


== Literatura ==
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin|2}}
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{Cite book | ref= harv|title=The Future World of Agriculture |author=Wendy B. Murphy, Watts |year=1984 |publisher=Grolier |isbn=978-0-7172-8142-8}}
* {{Cite book | ref= harv|title=The Future World of Agriculture |author=Wendy B. Murphy, Watts |year=1984 |publisher=Grolier |isbn=978-0-7172-8142-8}}
* -{''Storia delle scienze agrarie'' by Antonio Saltini, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89. ISBN 978-88-206-2412-5. ISBN 978-88-206-2413-2. {{page|year=|isbn=978-88-206-2414-9|pages=}}. {{page|year=|id=ISBN 88-206-2414-X|pages=}}}-
* -{''Storia delle scienze agrarie'' by Antonio Saltini, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89. ISBN 978-88-206-2412-5. ISBN 978-88-206-2413-2. {{page|year=|isbn=978-88-206-2414-9|pages=}}. {{page|year=|id=ISBN 88-206-2414-X|pages=}}}-
* {{Cite book | ref= harv|title=Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils and Their Fertility |author=J. Benton Jones Jr |publisher= CRC Press | edition = 1. |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-8493-0897-0}}
* {{Cite book | ref= harv|title=Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils and Their Fertility |author=J. Benton Jones Jr |publisher= CRC Press | edition = 1. |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-8493-0897-0}}
* {{cite journal | last1 = McCouch | first1 = S.|author1-link= Susan McCouch | year = 2004 | title = Diversifying Selection in Plant Breeding | journal = PLOS Biol | volume = 2 | issue = 10| page = e347 | doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020347 | pmid=15486582 | pmc=521731}}
* Briggs, F.N. and Knowles, P.F. 1967. ''Introduction to Plant Breeding''. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
* Curry, Helen Anne. ''Evolution Made to Order: Plant Breeding and Technological Innovation in Twentieth-Century America'' (U of Chicago Press, 2016). x, 285 pp.
* {{cite journal | last1 = Gepts | first1 = P. | year = 2002 | title = A Comparison between Crop Domestication, Classical Plant Breeding, and Genetic Engineering | url = https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/abstracts/42/6/1780 | journal = Crop Science | volume = 42 | issue = 6| pages = 1780–1790 | doi=10.2135/cropsci2002.1780}}
* ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20041130195153/http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/Publications/pubfile.asp?ID_PUB=47 The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication – The Harlan Symposium]''
* Schlegel, Rolf (2009) [http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781439802427 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding] 2nd ed. ({{ISBN|9781439802427}}), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 584
* Schlegel, Rolf (2007) [http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781560221463 Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement: Institutions, Persons, Theories, Methods, and Histories] ({{ISBN|9781560221463}}), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 423
* Schlegel, Rolf (2014) Dictionary of Plant Breeding, 2nd ed., ({{ISBN|978-1439802427}}), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Taylor & Francis Group, Inc., New York, USA, pp 584
* {{cite journal | last1 = Schouten | first1 = Henk J. | last2 = Krens | first2 = Frans A. | last3 = Jacobsen | first3 = Evert | year = 2006 | title = Do cisgenic plants warrant less stringent oversight? | journal = Nature Biotechnology | volume = 24 | issue = 7| page = 753 | doi=10.1038/nbt0706-753 | pmid=16841052| s2cid = 8087798 | doi-access = free }}
* {{cite journal | last1 = Schouten | first1 = Henk J. | last2 = Krens | first2 = Frans A. | last3 = Jacobsen | first3 = Evert | year = 2006 | title = Cisgenic plants are similar to traditionally bred plants | journal = EMBO Reports | volume = 7 | issue = 8| pages = 750–753 | doi=10.1038/sj.embor.7400769 | pmid=16880817 | pmc=1525145}}
* {{cite journal | last1 = Sun | title = From indica and japonica splitting in common wild rice DNA to the origin and evolution of Asian cultivated rice | url = https://carleton.ca/~bgordon/Rice/papers/SUN98.htm| journal = Agricultural Archaeology | volume = 1998 | pages = 21–29 }}
* Thro, A.M.; Spillane, C. (1999) [http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos_ciat/wd4.pdf Biotechnology assisted participatory plant breeding: Complement or contradiction?] CGIAR Program on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis, Working Document No.4, CIAT: Cali. 150pp.
* {{cite book |last=Deppe |first=Carol |date=2000 |title=Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties |publisher=Chelsea Green Publishing}}
* {{Cite book|date=2020|editor-last=Vaschetto|editor-first=Luis M.|title=Cereal Genomics|series=Methods in Molecular Biology|volume=2072|language=en-gb|doi=10.1007/978-1-4939-9865-4|issn=1064-3745|isbn=978-1-4939-9864-7|s2cid=82398463}}
* {{cite journal|last1=Baveye|first1=P.|last2=Jacobson|first2=A.R.|last3=Allaire|first3=S.E.|last4=Tandarich|first4=J.P.|last5=Bryant|first5=R.B.|title=Whither Goes Soil Science in the United States and Canada?|journal=Soil Science|date=2006|volume=171|issue=7|pages=501–518|doi=10.1097/01.ss.0000228032.26905.a9|s2cid=97046751 }}
* [https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20090212011008/http://www.fao.org/landandwater/agll/index.stm FAO-AGL], 2006, [http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/soilbiod/default.stm Soil Biodiversity Portal]: Conservation and Management of Soil Biodiversity and its role in Sustainable Agriculture Url last accessed 2006-04-16
* Kellog, C.E., 1961, A challenge to American soil scientists: On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Soil Science Society of America. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 25(6):419-423, 1961.
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061213110532/https://guide.symplicity.com/resources/profession_article.php?id=68 Professional Profiles - Agricultural and Food Scientists (Soil Scientists)] Url last accessed 2006-04-16
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20060419023150/http://soils.usda.gov/education/facts/careers.html USDA-NRCS Careers in Soil Science] Url last accessed 2006-04-16
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061213110532/https://guide.symplicity.com/resources/profession_article.php?id=68 Professional Profiles - Agricultural and Food Scientists (Soil Scientists)] Url last accessed 2006-04-16
{{refend}}
{{refend}}

== Vidi još ==
* [[Ratarstvo]]
* [[Povrtarstvo]]


== Spoljašnje veze ==
== Spoljašnje veze ==
{{commonscat|Agronomy}}
{{commonscat|Agronomy}}
{{refbegin|30em}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20110414225520/http://www.esagr.org/structure/ Evropsko agronomsko društvo]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20110414225520/http://www.esagr.org/structure/ Evropsko agronomsko društvo]
* [https://www.agronomy.org/ Američko agronomsko društvo]
* [https://www.agronomy.org/ Američko agronomsko društvo]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20150918103054/http://www.extension.org/plant_breeding_genomics Plant Breeding and Genomics eXtension Community of Practice] – education and training materials for plant breeders and allied professionals
* [https://archive.today/2012.12.08-175110/http://www.plant-breeding-update.de/ Plant Breeding Updates]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090223153405/http://www.agron.iastate.edu/faculty/fehr/FehrHOCP.aspx Hybridization of Crop Plants] – large practical reference on plant hybridization
* [http://www.infography.com/content/098241002810.html Infography about the History of Plant Breeding]
* [http://www.opbf.org/glossary Glossary of plant breeding terminology by the Open Plant Breeding Foundation]
* [http://www.plantbreeding.org/ National Association of Plant Breeders (NAPB)]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20070812024421/http://km.fao.org/gipb/ The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building – GIPB]
* [http://mvgs.iaea.org/AboutMutantVarities.aspx FAO/IAEA Programme Mutant Variety Database]
* [https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Biotechnology/ucm096095.htm FDA Statement of Policy – Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties]
* [https://www.vermontlaw.edu/sites/default/files/2020-01/Defensive-Publication-Guide.pdf A Breed Apart: The Plant Breeder's Guide to Preventing Patents through Defensive Publication] by Cydnee V. Bence & Emily J. Speigel, 2019
{{refend}}


{{нормативна контрола-лат}}
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[[Категорија:Агрономија]]
[[Категорија:Агрономија]]

[[ar:علم الإنتاج النباتي]]

Верзија на датум 28. децембар 2022. у 03:25

Uzimanje uzoraka.

Agronomija (od grčke reči ἀγρός — polje i νόμος — zakon) je nauka i tehnologija o obradi zemlje radi proizvodnje ljudske i stočne hrane, goriva, kao i niza drugih proizvoda. Agronomija obuhvata aktivnosti u oblastima biljne genetike, biljne fiziologije, meteorologije, i nauke o zemljištu. Agronomija je primena kombinacije nauka, među kojima su biologija, hemija, ekonomija, ekologija, nauke o Zemlji, i genetika. Agronomija se pored proizvodnje hrane bavi razvojem zdravije hrane, i upravljanjem utjecaja poljoprivrede na okolinu.[1]

Agronomija se može podeliti na više specijalizovanih oblasti: rotacija useva[2], irigacija i drenaža, oplemenjivanje bilja[3], fiziologija biljaka[4], plodnost i klasifikacija zemljišta, kontrola korova, kontrola insekata i štetočina[5].

Oplemenjivanje biljaka

Agronom, uzorkuje probnu parcelu lana.

Ova oblast agronomije uključuje selektivno oplemenjivanje biljaka za proizvodnju najboljih useva za različite uslove.[6] Oplemenjivanje biljaka je povećalo prinose useva i poboljšalo hranljivu vrednost brojnih useva, uključujući kukuruz, soju i pšenicu.[7] To je takođe rezultiralo razvojem novih vrsta biljaka. Na primer, hibridno zrno po imenu tritikal proizvedeno je ukrštanjem raži i pšenice. Tritikal sadrži više upotrebljivih proteina nego raž ili pšenica. Agronomija je takođe bila ključna za istraživanje proizvodnje voća i povrća.[8] Pored toga, za razvoj travnjaka, korišćenje oplemenjivanja biljaka rezultiralo je smanjenjem potrebe za unosom đubriva i vode (zahtevima), kao i vrstama travnjaka koji pokazuju povećanu otpornost na bolesti.

Biotehnologija

An agronomist mapping a plant genome.

Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristics.[9] Biotechnology is often a laboratory activity requiring field testing of new crop varieties that are developed.[10][11]

In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is being applied increasingly for novel uses other than food.[12][13] For example, oilseed is at present used mainly for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals.

Nauka o zemljištu

Agronomists study sustainable ways to make soils more productive and profitable.[14] They classify soils and analyze them to determine whether they contain nutrients vital for plant growth. Common macronutrients analyzed include compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Soil is also assessed for several micronutrients, like zinc and boron. The percentage of organic matter, soil pH, and nutrient holding capacity (cation exchange capacity) are tested in a regional laboratory. Agronomists will interpret these laboratory reports and make recommendations to modify soil nutrients for optimal plant growth.[15]

Soil conservation

Additionally, agronomists develop methods to preserve soil and decrease the effects of [erosion] by wind and water. For example, a technique known as contour plowing may be used to prevent soil erosion and conserve rainfall. Researchers of agronomy also seek ways to use the soil more effectively for solving other problems. Such problems include the disposal of human and animal manure, water pollution, and pesticide accumulation in the soil, as well as preserving the soil for future generations such as the burning of paddocks after crop production. Pasture management techniques include no-till farming, planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, and using contour drains of depths as much as 1 metre.[16]

Agroekologija

Agroecology is the management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental applications.[17] This topic is associated closely with work for sustainable agriculture, organic farming, and alternative food systems and the development of alternative cropping systems.

Teoretsko modelovanje

Theoretical production ecology is the quantitative study of the growth of crops.[18] The plant is treated as a kind of biological factory, which processes light, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients into harvestable products. The main parameters considered are temperature, sunlight, standing crop biomass, plant production distribution, and nutrient and water supply.

Vidi još

Reference

  1. ^ What is agronomy
  2. ^ Powell, J.M., William, T.O. (1993). „An overview of mixed farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa”. Livestock and Sustainable Nutrient Cycling in Mixed Farming Systems of Sub-Saharan Africa: Proceedings of an International Conference, International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). 2: 21—36. 
  3. ^ Breeding Field Crops. 1995. Sleper and Poehlman. Page 3
  4. ^ Salisbury, Frank B. & Cleon W. Ross, 1992. Plant physiology. (4th изд.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 978-0-534-15162-1. 
  5. ^ Pesticides | US EPA
  6. ^ Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim (2014). „Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU”. The Plant Journal. 78 (5): 742—752. PMID 24330272. doi:10.1111/tpj.12413Слободан приступ. 
  7. ^ Willy H. Verheye, ур. (2010). „Plant Breeding and Genetics”. Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production Volume I. Eolss Publishers. стр. 185. ISBN 978-1-84826-367-3. 
  8. ^ Hayes, Patrick M.; Castro, Ariel; Marquez-Cedillo, Luis; Corey, Ann; Henson, Cynthia; Jones, Berne L.; Kling, Jennifer; Mather, Diane; Matus, Ivan; Rossi, Carlos; Sato, Kazuhiro (2003). „Genetic diversity for quantitatively inherited agronomic and malting quality traits”. Ур.: Roland von Bothmer; Theo van Hintum; Helmut Knüpffer; Kazuhiro Sato. Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Amsterdam Boston: Elsevier. стр. 201—226. ISBN 978-0-444-50585-9. ISSN 0168-7972. OCLC 162130976. doi:10.1016/S0168-7972(03)80012-9.  ISBN 1865843830
  9. ^ Georgetown International Environmental Law Review
  10. ^ „Biotechnology”. IUPAC Goldbook. 2014. doi:10.1351/goldbook.B00666. 
  11. ^ Ereky, Karl. (8. 6. 1919). Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett-, und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe: für naturwissenschaftlich gebildete Landwirte verfasst. P. Parey — преко Hathi Trust. 
  12. ^ Biotechnology Архивирано новембар 7, 2012 на сајту Wayback Machine. Portal.acs.org. Retrieved on March 20, 2013.
  13. ^ „BIOTECHNOLOGY-PRINCIPLES & PROCESSES” (PDF). Архивирано из оригинала (PDF) 7. 8. 2015. г. Приступљено 29. 12. 2014. 
  14. ^ Doran, J., and T. Sims. Renewed vision for Earth Scientists “Sustaining Earth and its People - Translating Science into Practice. Geotimes, July: 5, 2002.
  15. ^ Hoeft, Robert G. (2000). Modern Corn and Soybean Production. MCSP Publications. стр. 107 to 171. ASIN B0006RLD8U. 
  16. ^ Arya, R. L.; Arya, S.; Arya, Renu; Kumar, J. (2015-01-01). Fundamentals of Agriculture (ICAR-NET, JRF, SRF, CSIR-NET, UPSC & IFS) (на језику: енглески). Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-93-86102-36-2. 
  17. ^ „Iowa State University: Undergraduate Program - Agroecology”. Архивирано из оригинала 7. 10. 2008. г. 
  18. ^ Amthor JS (2010) From sunlight to phytomass: on the potential efficiency of converting solar radiation to phyto-energy. New Phytologist 188:939-959

Literatura

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