Istorija Tajvana

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Istorija ostrva Tajvan datira unazad desetinama hiljada godina do najranije poznate evidencije ljudskih prebivališta.[1][2] Smatra se da je iznenadna pojava kulture zasnovane na poljoprivredi oko 3000. godine pne odražavala dolazak predaka današnjih tajvanskih domorodaca.[3] Ostrvo su kolonizovali Holanđani u 17. veku, a potom je usledio priliv Han Kineza, uključujući Haka imigrante iz oblasti Fuđen i Guangdung u kopnenoj Kini, preko Tajvanskog tesnaca. Španci su nakratko izgradili naselje na severu, ali su ih 1642. proterali Holanđani.

Godine 1662, Koksinga, lojalista iz dinastije Ming koji je 1644. izgubio kontrolu nad kontinentalnom Kinom, pobedio je Holanđane i osnovao operativnu bazu na ostrvu. Njegove snage je porazila dinastija Ćing 1683. godine, i delovi Tajvana su postajali sve više integrisani u carstvo Ćing. Nakon Prvog kinesko-japanskog rata 1895. godine, dinastija Čing je ustupila ostrvo, zajedno s Penhuom, Japanskom carstvu. Tajvan je proizvodio pirinač i šećer koji se izvozio u Japansko carstvo, a služio je i kao osnova za japansku invaziju na jugoistočnu Aziju i Pacifik tokom Drugog svetskog rata. Na Tajvanu je sprovedeno japansko carsko obrazovanje, a mnogi Tajvanci su se tokom rata borili i za Japan.

Godine 1945, nakon završetka Drugog svetskog rata, nacionalistička vlada Republike Kine (ROC), pod vodstvom Kuomintanga (KMT), preuzela je kontrolu nad Tajvanom. Godine 1949, nakon što je u Kineskom građanskom ratu izgubila kontrolu nad kopnom, vlada Republike Kine pod KMT-om povukla se na Tajvan, i Čang Kaj Šek je proglasio vojnu upravu. KMT je vladao Tajvanom (zajedno sa ostrvima Kinmen, Vuću i Macu na suprotnoj strani Tajvanskog tesnaca) kao jednopartijskom državom četrdeset godina, sve do demokratskih reformi 1980-ih, koje su dovele do prvih direktnih predsedničkih izbora 1996. godine. Tokom posleratnog perioda, Tajvan je doživeo brzu industrijalizaciju i ekonomski rast poznat kao „tajvansko čudo”, i bio je poznat kao jedan od „četiri azijska tigra”.

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Olsen & Miller-Antonio (1992).
  2. ^ Jiao (2007), стр. 89–90.
  3. ^ Jiao (2007), стр. 91–94.

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Spoljašnje veze[уреди]