Кушанско царство

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Простор на коме се простирало Кушанско царство

Кушанско царство је била древна држава формирана на територији античке Бактрије на обалама Аму Дарије, односно територијама данашњег северног Авганистана, те јужног Таџикистана и Узбекистана.[1] У 1. и 2. веку су Кушани продрли на северни део Индијског потконтинета све до Сакете и Сарната крај Варанасија (Бенарес) где натписи из 127. н. е. спомињу најпознатијег кушанског владара Канишку.[2][3][4]

Кушани су представљали један од огранака Јуежи племенског савеза, те су одржавали дипломатске контакте с Римом, Персијом и Кином династије Хан. Иако су унутар његових граница створена бројна уметничка и књижевна дела, једини текстови о Кушанима потичу од других народа који су им били савременици, поготово Кинеза.[5] Царство је ослабило у 3. веку те пало под власт Сасанида и Гупта.

Референце[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Hill 2009, стр. 29, 318-350.
  2. ^ Falk, Harry (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, pp. 121-136.
  3. ^ Falk, Harry (2004): "The Kaniṣka era in Gupta records." Silk Road Art and Archaeology X (2004), pp. 167-176.
  4. ^ Hill 2009, стр. 29, 33, 368-371.
  5. ^ Hill (2009), pp. 36 and notes.

Литература[уреди | уреди извор]

  • Avari, Burjor (2007). India: The Ancient Past. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9. 
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-2994-1. 
  • Benjamin, Craig (2007). The Yuezhi: Origin, Migration and the Conquest of Northern Bactria. ISD. ISBN 978-2-503-52429-0. 
  • Bopearachchi, Osmund (2003). De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale (на језику: француски). Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2. 
  • Bopearachchi, Osmund (2007). „Some Observations on the Chronology of the Early Kushans”. Ур.: Gyselen, Rika. Des Indo-Grecs aux Sassanides: données pour l'histoire et la géographie historique. XVII. Group pour l'Etude de la Civilisation du Moyen-Orient. 
  • Chavannes, Édouard (1906). Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch'ao (32–102 p.C.); – son fils Pan Yong; – Leang K'in (112 p.C.). Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou'. T'oung pao 7. 
  • Chavannes, Édouard (1907). Les pays d'occident d'après le Heou Han chou. T'oung pao 8. стр. 149—244. 
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, Boris Abramovich; Zamir Safi, M. H. "Eastern Kushans, Kidarines in Gandhara ans Kashmir, and Later Hephthalites". In Litvinsky (1996), pp. 163–184.
  • Dorn'eich, Chris M. (2008). Chinese sources on the History of the Niusi-Wusi-Asi (oi)-Rishi (ka)-Arsi-Arshi-Ruzhi and their Kueishuang-Kushan Dynasty. Shiji 110/Hanshu 94A: The Xiongnu: Synopsis of Chinese original Text and several Western Translations with Extant Annotations. Berlin. To read or download go to: [1]
  • Enoki, K.; Koshelenko, G. A.; Haidary, Z. "The Yu'eh-chih and their migrations". In Harmatta, Puri & Etemadi (1994), pp. 165–183.
  • Faccenna, Domenico (1980). Butkara I (Swāt, Pakistan) 1956–1962, Volume III 1 (in English). Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente).
  • Falk, Harry (1995—1996). Silk Road Art and Archaeology IV. 
  • Falk, Harry (2001). „The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣāṇas”. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII. стр. 121—136. 
  • Falk, Harry (2004). „The Kaniṣka era in Gupta records”. Silk Road Art and Archaeology X. стр. 167—176. 
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Harrassowitz Verlag. 
  • Goyal, S. R. (2005). Ancient Indian Inscriptions. Jodhpur, India: Kusumanjali Book World. 
  • Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central AsiaНеопходна слободна регистрација. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1. 
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910–11). "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 25–32.
  • Harmatta, János. "Religions in the Kushan Empire". In Harmatta, Puri & Etemadi (1999), pp. 313–330.
  • Harmatta, János; Puri, B. N.; Etemadi, G. F., ур. (1994). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations, 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-102846-5. Приступљено 29. 5. 2015. 
  • Harmatta, János; Puri, B. N.; Etemadi, G. F., ур. (1999) [1994]. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume II The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations, 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8-1208-1408-0. Приступљено 31. 7. 2021. 
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Hill, John E. (2009). Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. 
  • Hoey, W. "The Word Kozola as Used of Kadphises on Ku͟s͟hān Coins." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1902, pp. 428–429. JSTOR 25208419.
  • Iloliev, A. "King of Men: ῾Ali ibn Abi Talib in Pamiri Folktales." Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies, vol. 8 no. 3, 2015, pp. 307–323. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/isl.2015.0036.
  • Kennedy, J. "The Later Kushans." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1913, pp. 1054–1064. JSTOR 25189078.
  • Konow, Sten, ed. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Lebedynsky, Iaroslav (2006). Les Saces. Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-337-2. 
  • Lerner, Martin (1984). The flame and the lotus: Indian and Southeast Asian art from the Kronos collections. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-87099-374-7. 
  • Litvinsky, Boris Abramovich, ур. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 9789231032110. 
  • Liu, Xinru (јесен 2001). „Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies”. Journal of World History. University of Hawaii Press. 12 (2): 261—292. doi:10.1353/jwh.2001.0034. 
  • Liu, Xinru (2010). The Silk Road in World History. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47030-7. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521470308. 
  • Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-884964-98-2. 
  • Mallory, J. P.; Mair, Victor H. (2008). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28372-1. 
  • Masson, V. M. "The Forgotten Kushan Empire: New Discoveries at Zar-Tepe." Archaeology, vol. 37, no. 1, 1984, pp. 32–37. JSTOR 41728802.
  • Narain, A. K. (1990). „Indo-Europeans in Central Asia”. Ур.: Sinor, Denis. The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. 1. Cambridge University Press. стр. 151—177. ISBN 978-1-139-05489-8. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.007. 
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1966). „Chinese and Indo-Europeans”. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 98 (1/2): 9—39. JSTOR 25202896. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00124566. 
  • Puri, Baij Nath. "The Sakas and Indo-Parthians". In Harmatta, Puri & Etemadi (1994), pp. 184–201.
  • Puri, Baij Nath. "The Kushans". In Harmatta, Puri & Etemadi (1999), pp. 247–264.
  • "Red Sandstone Railing Pillar." The British Museum Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 1/2, 1965, pp. 64–64. JSTOR 4422925.
  • Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017a). „East Iran in Late Antiquity”. ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. стр. 1—256. ISBN 978-1-4744-0030-5. JSTOR 10.3366/j.ctt1g04zr8. 
  • Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017b). „From the Kushans to the Western Turks”. Ур.: Daryaee, Touraj. King of the Seven Climes: A History of the Ancient Iranian World (3000 BCE - 651 CE). UCI Jordan Center for Persian Studies. стр. 1—236. ISBN 978-0-692-86440-1. 
  • Rife, J. L. "The Making of Roman India by Grant Parker (review)." American Journal of Philology, vol. 135 no. 4, 2014, pp. 672–675. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/ajp.2014.0046.
  • Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. University of California Press. 
  • Rosenfield, John M. (1993). The Dynastic Art of the Kushans. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0579-8. 
  • Roux, Jean-Paul (1997). L'Asie Centrale, Histoire et Civilization [Central Asia: History and Civilization] (на језику: француски). Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-59894-9. 
  • Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. 
  • Sarianidi, Viktor. 1985. The Golden Hoard of Bactria: From the Tillya-tepe Excavations in Northern Afghanistan. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas; Cribb, Joe. "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great". In Falk (1995–1996), pp. 75–142.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1998. "Further notes on the Bactrian inscription of Rabatak, with an Appendix on the names of Kujula Kadphises and Vima Taktu in Chinese." Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies Part 1: Old and Middle Iranian Studies. Edited by Nicholas Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden. pp. 79–93.
  • Sivaramamurti, C. (1976). Śatarudrīya: Vibhūti of Śiva's Iconography. Delhi: Abhinav Publications. 
  • Spooner, D. B. (1908–09). "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī."; Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 38–59.
  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Chapter 123: "The Account of Dayuan", Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.)
  • Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries. BRILL. 
  • Zürcher, E. (1968). „The Yüeh-chih and Kaniṣka in the Chinese sources”. Ур.: Basham, A. L. Papers on the Date of Kaniṣka. Leiden: E. J. Brill. стр. 346—393. 

Спољашње везе[уреди | уреди извор]