Mešovita ekonomija

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Mešovita ekonomija je različito definisana kao ekonomski sistem koji meša elemente tržišne ekonomije sa elementima planske ekonomije, slobodna tržišta sa državnim intervencionizmom, ili privatna preduzeća sa javnim preduzećima.[1][2][3][4] Iako ne postoji jedinstvena definicija mešovite ekonomije, jedna definicija govori o mešavini tržišta sa državnim intervencionizmom, pozivajući se posebno na kapitalističku tržišnu ekonomiju sa snažnim regulatornim nadzorom i obimnim intervencijama na tržištima. Druga opisuje aktivnu saradnju kapitalističkih i socijalističkih vizija.[5] Još jedna definicija je apolitične prirode, koja se striktno odnosi na ekonomiju koja sadrži mešavinu privatnog preduzeća i javnog preduzeća.[6] Alternativno, mešovita ekonomija može se odnositi na socijalističku ekonomiju koja omogućava značajnu ulogu privatnog preduzetništva i ugovaranja u dominantnom ekonomskom okviru javnog vlasništva. To se može proširiti na plansku ekonomiju sovjetskog tipa koja je reformisana tako da inkorporira veću ulogu tržišta u raspodeli faktora proizvodnje.[7]

U većini slučajeva, posebno u kontekstu na zapadne ekonomije, to je kapitalistička ekonomija koju karakteriše prevladavanje privatnog vlasništva nad proizvodnim sredstvima sa preduzećima koja nastoje da ostvare profit, i akumulacijom kapitala kao osnovnom pokretačkom snagom.[8] U takvom sistemu, tržišta su podložna različitim stepenima regulatorne kontrole, a vlade ostvaruju indirektni makroekonomski uticaj kroz fiskalne i monetarne politike s ciljem da se suprotstavljanja istoriji kapitalizma karakterisanoj ciklusima buma/raspada, nezaposlenosti i razlikama u prihodima. U tom okviru, različite stepene javnih i osnovnih usluga pruža država, pri čemu su državne aktivnosti često ograničene na pružanje javnih dobara i univerzalnih građanskih zahteva, uključujući zdravstvenu zaštitu, fizičku infrastrukturu i upravljanje javnim zemljištem.[8][9] To je u suprotnosti sa lese fer kapitalizmom, gde su državne aktivnosti ograničene na pružanje javnih dobara i usluga, kao i na infrastrukturu i pravni okvir za zaštitu svojinskih prava i sprovođenje ugovora.[10]

U odnosu na zapadnoevropske ekonomske modele za koje su se zalagali konzervativci (hrišćanski demokrati), liberali (socijalni liberali) i socijalisti (socijaldemokrati) kao deo posleratnog konsenzusa, mešovita ekonomija je oblik kapitalizma gde je većina industrija u privatnom vlasništvu, sa samo malim brojem javnih komunalnih i osnovnih usluga u javnom vlasništvu,[11] obično 15–20%.[12] U posleratnoj eri, zapadnoevropska socijaldemokratija je postala asocirana sa ovim ekonomskim modelom.[13] Kao ekonomski ideal, mešovite ekonomije podržavaju ljudi različitih političkih ubeđenja, obično levi i desni centar, poput hrišćanskih demokrata ili socijaldemokrata.[14] Savremena kapitalistička socijalna država opisana je kao tip mešovite ekonomije - u smislu državnog intervencionizma, za razliku od mešavine planiranja i tržišta - jer ekonomsko planiranje nikada nije bilo svojstvo ili ključna komponenta socijalne države.[15]

Etimologija[уреди | уреди извор]

Iako ne postoji jedinstvena, sveobuhvatna definicija mešovite ekonomije, generalno postoje dve glavne definicije, jedna je politička, a druga apolitična. Politička definicija mešovite ekonomije odnosi se na stepen državnog intervencionizma u tržišnoj ekonomiji, prikazujući državu kako zadire u tržište pod pretpostavkom da je tržište prirodni mehanizam za raspodelu resursa. Politička definicija ograničena je na kapitalističke ekonomije i sprečava proširenje na nekapitalistički sistem, s obzirom na javnu politiku i uticaj države na tržište.[16]

Apolitična definicija odnosi se na obrasce vlasništva i upravljanja ekonomskim preduzećima u privredi. Apolitična definicija mešovite ekonomije strogo se odnosi na kombinaciju javnog i privatnog vlasništva preduzeća u ekonomiji i ne bavi se političkim formama i javnom politikom.[17]

Istorija[уреди | уреди извор]

Termin mešovita ekonomija nastao je u kontekstu političke rasprave u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu u posleratnom periodu, iako je niz politika kasnije povezanih s tim pojmom bio zagovaran bar od 1930-ih.[18] Pristalice mešovite ekonomije, uključujući R. H. Taunija,[19] Andotni Kroslanda[20] i Endru Šonfilda uglavnom su bili povezani sa Laburističkom strankom, mada su slična stanovišta iznosili konzervativci, uključujući Harolda Makmilana. Kritičari mešovite ekonomije, uključujući Ludviga fon Misesa i Fridriha fon Hajeka, tvrdili su da ne može postojati trajna sredina između ekonomskog planiranja i tržišne ekonomije i svaki pomak u pravcu socijalističkog planiranja je nenamerni potez ka onome što je Ilerski blok nazvao „servilna država”.[21]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Schiller, Bradley. The Micro Economy Today, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2010, p. 15. "Mixed economy - An economy that uses both market signals and government directives to allocate goods and resources." This follows immediately from a discussion on command economies and market mechanism.
  2. ^ Stilwell, Frank J. B. (2006). Political Economy: The Contest of Economic IdeasНеопходна слободна регистрација (2 изд.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195551273. Приступљено 12. 11. 2018. 
  3. ^ Hendricks, Jean and Gaoreth D. Myles. Intermediate Public Economics, The MIT Press, 2006, p. 4 "the mixed economy where individual decisions are respected but the government attempts to affect these through the policies it implements".
  4. ^ Gorman, Tom. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Economics, Alpha Books (2003), p. 9. "In a market economy, the private-sector businesses and consumers decide what they will produce and purchase, with little government intervention. [...] In a command economy, also known as a planned economy, the government largely determines what is produced and in what amounts. In a mixed economy, both market forces and government decisions determine which goods and services are produced and how they are distributed."
  5. ^ Mander, Jerry (2012). The Capitalism Papers: Fatal Flaws of an Obsolete System. Counterpoint. стр. 213–217. ISBN 978-1582437170. 
  6. ^ Brown, Douglas (11. 11. 2011). Towards a Radical Democracy (Routledge Revivals): The Political Economy of the Budapest School. Routledge. стр. 10—11. ISBN 978-0415608794. »The apolitical definition of 'mixed economy' generally refers to the mix of public and private ownership forms. [...] Here 'mixed economy' itself does not specify a political form. it means an economy characterized by a combination of public and private ownership as well as planning and markets.« 
  7. ^ Young, Greg. „Mixed Economy”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Приступљено 15. 3. 2020. »Alternatively, a mixed economy can emerge when a socialist government makes exceptions to the rule of state ownership to capture economic benefits from private ownership and free market incentives.« 
  8. 8,0 8,1 Pollin, Robert (2007). "Resurrection of the Rentier" (July–August). Book review of Andrew Glyn's Capitalism Unleashed: Finance, Globalization and Welfare. In New Left Review (46): 141–142. "The underlying premise behind the mixed economy was straightforward. Keynes and like-minded reformers were not willing to give up on capitalism, and in particular, two of its basic features: that ownership and control of the economy's means of production would remain primarily in the hands of private capitalists; and that most economic activity would be guided by 'market forces', that is, the dynamic combination of material self-seeking and competition. More specifically, the driving force of the mixed economy, as with free-market capitalism, should continue to be capitalists trying to make as much profit as they can. At the same time, Keynes was clear that in maintaining a profit-driven marketplace, it was also imperative to introduce policy interventions to counteract capitalism’s inherent tendencies—demonstrated to devastating effect during the 1930s calamity—toward financial breakdowns, depressions, and mass unemployment. Keynes's framework also showed how full employment and social welfare interventions could be justified not simply on grounds of social uplift, but could also promote the stability of capitalism."
  9. ^ Rees, Merlyn (1973). The Public Sector in the Mixed Economy. Bratsford. стр. 240. ISBN 978-0713413724. 
  10. ^ Yu-Shan Wu (1995). Comparative Economic Transformations: Mainland China, Hungary, the Soviet Union, and Taiwan. Stanford University Press. стр. 8. »In laissez-faire capitalism, the state restricts itself to providing public goods and services that the economy cannot generate by itself and to safeguarding private ownership and the smooth operation of the self-regulating market.« 
  11. ^ Miller, David (1998). "Social Democracy". In Craig, Edward (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8. Routledge. ISBN 9780415187138.
  12. ^ Batson, Andrew (March 2017). "The State of the State Sector". Gavekal Dragonomics. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  13. ^ Craig, Edward (јун 1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 8. Routledge. стр. 827. ISBN 978-0415187138. »In the second, mainly post-war, phase, social democrats came to believe that their ideals and values could be achieved by reforming capitalism rather than abolishing it. They favored a mixed economy in which most industries would be privately owned, with only a small number of utilities and other essential services in public ownership.« 
  14. ^ "Social democracy". Jason P. Abbot. Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy. Ed. R. J. Barry Jones. Taylor & Francis, 2001. 1410
  15. ^ O'Hara, Phillip Anthony, ур. (1999). „Welfare state”. Encyclopedia of Political Economy. Routledge. стр. 1247. ISBN 0-415-24187-1. »The welfare state emerged in the twentieth century as one institutional form of this socially protective response. In the 1930s, the responses of emerging welfare states to the Great Depression were to the immediate circumstances of massive unemployment, lost output, and collapse of the financial and trading systems. Planning was not a key element in the response to the crisis of capitalism. Instead, the character of welfare state intervention can best be described as an 'interventionist drift', reflecting the spontaneous, uncoordinated reactions of the protective response.« 
  16. ^ Brown, Douglas (11. 11. 2011). Towards a Radical Democracy (Routledge Revivals): The Political Economy of the Budapest School. Routledge. стр. 10—11. ISBN 978-0415608794. »There are in general two broad yet distinguishable definitions of 'mixed economy': a political definition and an apolitical definition. The political definition refers to the degree of state intervention in what is basically a market economy. Thus this definition 'portray[s] the phenomenon in terms of state encroaching upon the market and thereby suggest[s] that market is the natural or preferable mechanism. [...] The political definition of 'mixed economy' precludes extending it to non-capitalist systems.« 
  17. ^ Brown, Douglas (11. 11. 2011). Towards a Radical Democracy (Routledge Revivals): The Political Economy of the Budapest School. Routledge. стр. 10—11. ISBN 978-0415608794. »The apolitical definition of 'mixed economy' generally refers to the mix of public and private ownership forms. [...] Here 'mixed economy' itself does not specify a political form. it means an economy characterized by a combination of public and private ownership as well as planning and markets.« 
  18. ^ Reisman, David A. Theories of the Mixed Economy (Theories of the mixed economy). Pickering & Chatto Ltd. ISBN 1-85196-214-X. 
  19. ^ Tawney, R. H. (1964). Equality. London: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-323014-8. 
  20. ^ Crosland, A. (1977). The Future of socialism. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-9586-1. 
  21. ^ Gardner, Martin. Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener St. Martin's Press (1991), p. 126.

Literatura[уреди | уреди извор]

  • Buchanan, James M. (1986) Liberty, Market and State: Political Economy in the 1980s New York University Press.
  • Buckwitz, George D. (1991) America’s Welfare State: From Roosevelt to Reagan. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Derthick, Martha and Paul J. Quirk (1985) The Politics of Deregulation. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
  • Gross, Kyle B. (1991) The Politics of State Expansion: War, State and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain. New York: Routledge.
  • Rosin, Kirk (“Economic theory and the welfare state: a survey and interpretation.” Journal of Economic Literature, 30(2): 741-803. 1992, a review essay looking at the economics literature
  • Sanford Ikeda; Dynamics of the Mixed Economy: Toward a Theory of Interventionism London: Routledge 1997

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