Neolitska revolucija

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Karta jugozapadne Azije koja prikazuje glavna arheološka nalazišta iz perioda prekeramičkog neolita, oko 7500 godina pre nove ere.
Plodni polumesec jedno od područja na kome je došlo do neolitske revolucije.
Vir Gordon Čajld, 1892-1957.

Neolitska revolucija je prva poljoprivredna revolucija — prelazak sa lovačko-sakupljačkog načina života na bavljenje poljoprivredom i sedelački način života.[1] Arheološki podaci ukazuju na to da su se različiti oblici domestikacije biljaka i životinja[2] pojavili nezavisno u šest odvojenih lokusa širom sveta, sa najranijim poznatim tragovima pronađenim širom tropskih i suptropskih oblasti jugozapdne i južne Azije, severne i centralne Afrike i Centralne Amerike starim otprilike 10.000—7.000 godina.[3] Pojam neolitska revolucija 1920. godine uvodi Australijski istoričar i arheolog Čajld da bi opisao prvu veliku poljoprivrednu transformaciju.[4][5][6]

Neolitska revolucija uključivala je mnogo više od jednostavnog usvajanja ograničenog seta tehnika za proizvodnju hrane.[2][7] Male, pokretljive grupe lovaca-sakupljača koje su do tada dominirale ljudskom istorijom transformišu se u sedelačka društva sa izgrađenim selima i kasnije gradovima. Primena specijalizovanih tehnika za kultivisanje useva (npr. sistema za navodnjavanje) i skladištenje radikalno je promenila njihovu prirodnu sredinu i omogućila proizvodnju viška hrane. Ovakav razvoj događaja obezbedio je bazu za nastanak naselja sa velikom gustinom naseljenosti, društvene podele rada, ekonomije razmene dobara i trgovine, umetnosti, arhitekture, kulture, centralizovanih administracija i političkih struktura, hijerarhijskih ideologija, vlasništva, itd. što Ver naziva Urbana revolucija.

Ovi razvoji, koji se ponekad nazivaju i neolitski paket, pružili su osnovu za centralizovane uprave i političke strukture, hijerarhijske ideologije, depersonalizovane sisteme znanja (npr. pisanje), naseobine velike gustine, specijalizaciju i podelu rada, više trgovine, razvoj neprenosivih umetnosti i arhitekture i većeg vlasništva nad nekretninama. Najstarija poznata civilizacija razvila se u Sumeru u južnoj Mezopotamiji (oko 6.500 godina pre sadašnjosti); njen nastanak najavio je i početak bronzanog doba.[8]

Odnos gore navedenih neolitskih karakteristika prema početku poljoprivrede, njihov redosled nastajanja i empirijski odnos jednih prema drugima na različitim neolitskim nalazištima ostaje predmet akademske debate i varira od mesta do mesta, pre nego da je ishod univerzalnih zakona društvene evolucije.[9][10] Levant je video prve razvoje neolitske revolucije od oko 10.000 godina pre nove ere, nakon čega su usledila nalazišta u širem Plodnom polumesecu.

Pozadina[уреди | уреди извор]

Lovci-sakupljači su imali različite potrebe za život i način života od poljoprivrednika. Oni su stanovali u privremenim skloništima i bili su izuzetno mobilni, kretali su se u malim grupama i imali ograničeni kontakt sa strancima. Njihova ishrana je bila dobro izbalansirana i zavisila je od toga šta im okruženje pruža svake sezone. Budući da je pojava poljoprivrede omogućila podršku većim grupama, poljoprivrednici su živeli u stalnijim naseobinama u područjima koja su bila gušće naseljena nego što bi to moglo podržati način života lovaca i sakupljača. Razvoj trgovačkih mreža i složenih društava doveo ih je u kontakt sa spoljnim grupama.[11]

Međutim, povećanje populacije nije nužno koreliralo sa poboljšanjem zdravlja. Oslanjanje na jedan usev može negativno uticati na zdravlje čak i ako omogućava podršku većem broju ljudi. Kukuruz ima nedostatak određenih esencijalnih aminokiselina (lizina i triptofana) i loš je izvor gvožđa. Fitinska kiselina koju sadrži može sprečiti apsorpciju hranljivih materija. Drugi faktori koji su verovatno uticali na zdravlje ranih poljoprivrednika i njihove pripitomljene stoke, bili su povećan broj parazita i štetočina koje prenose bolesti povezane sa ljudskim otpadom i zagađenom hranom i vodom. Đubriva i navodnjavanje su možda povećali prinose useva, ali bi takođe promovisali širenje insekata i bakterija u lokalnom okruženju, dok je skladištenje zrna privuklo dodatne insekte i glodare.[11]

Vidi još[уреди | уреди извор]

Urbana revolucija

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel (29. 7. 2011). „When the World's Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition”. Science. 333 (6042): 560—561. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..560B. PMID 21798934. S2CID 29655920. doi:10.1126/science.1208880. 
  2. ^ а б Pollard, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Clifford; Tigor, Robert (2015). Worlds together, worlds apart. 1 (concise изд.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company. стр. 23. ISBN 978-0-393-25093-0. 
  3. ^ „International Stratigraphic Chart”. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 2013-02-12. Приступљено 2012-12-06. 
  4. ^ Armelagos, George J. (2014). „Brain Evolution, the Determinates of Food Choice, and the Omnivore's Dilemma”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 54 (10): 1330—1341. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 24564590. S2CID 25488602. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.635817. 
  5. ^ Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Stock, Jay T. (2020). „Life History Transitions at the Origins of Agriculture: A Model for Understanding How Niche Construction Impacts Human Growth, Demography and Health”. Frontiers in Endocrinology (на језику: енглески). 11: 325. ISSN 1664-2392. PMC 7253633Слободан приступ Проверите вредност параметра |pmc= (помоћ). PMID 32508752. doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.00325Слободан приступ. 
  6. ^ Larsen, Clark Spencer (2006-06-01). „The agricultural revolution as environmental catastrophe: Implications for health and lifestyle in the Holocene”. Quaternary International. Impact of rapid environmental changes on humans and ecosystems (на језику: енглески). 150 (1): 12—20. Bibcode:2006QuInt.150...12L. ISSN 1040-6182. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.01.004. 
  7. ^ Compare:Lewin, Roger (2009-02-18) [1984]. „35: The origin of agriculture and the first villagers”. Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction (5 изд.). Malden, Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons (објављено 2009). стр. 250. ISBN 978-1-4051-5614-1. Приступљено 2017-08-20. »[...] the Neolithic transition involved increasing sedentism and social complexity, which was usually followed by the gradual adoption of plant and animal domestication. In some cases, however, plant domestication preceded sedentism, particularly in the New World.« 
  8. ^ Violatti, Cristian (2. 4. 2018). „Neolithic Period”. World History Encyclopedia. 
  9. ^ "The Slow Birth of Agriculture" Архивирано 2011-01-01 на сајту Wayback Machine, Heather Pringle
  10. ^ „Wizard Chemi Shanidar”. EMuseum. Minnesota State University. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 18. 6. 2008. 
  11. ^ а б The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. 2000. стр. 46. 

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Spoljašnje veze[уреди | уреди извор]