Radno pravo

С Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Jedna od pravnih normi kojima se uređuje nastanak, sadržina i prestanak radnog odnosa kao i pravni položaj subjekata radnog prava u SAD

Radno pravo je naziv za skup pravnih normi kojima se uređuje nastanak, sadržina i prestanak radnog odnosa kao i pravni položaj subjekata radnog prava.

Smatra se da je u svom razvoju radno pravo prošlo kroz četiri perioda:

Istorija[уреди | уреди извор]

Sargon Akadski je ujedinio gradove-države u Asiriji i Sumeru u jedinstveno carstvo, kojim je vladao iz svog rodnog grada oko 2334. godine pne. Zajedničke mesopotamijske standarde za dužinu, površinu, zapreminu, težinu i vreme, koje su koristili zanatski esnafi u svakom gradu, proglasio je Narum-Sinu od Akada (oko 2254–2218. p. n. e.), Sargonov unuk. Time su bile obuhvaćene i kovanice, šekeli.[1] Kodeks Hamurabijevog zakona 234 (oko 1755–1750 pne) predviđao je 2 šekela preovlađujuću platu za svako plovilo od 60 gur (300 bušela) izgrađeno pod ugovorom o radu između brodograditelja i vlasnika broda.[2][3][4] Zakon 275 predviđao je trajektnu tarifu od 3 geraha dnevno za čarter ugovor između čarter broda i zapovednika. Zakon 276 je predviđao tarifu vozarine od 2​12 gera dnevno po ugovoru o prevozu između čartera i zapovednika broda, dok je Zakon 277 predviđao stopu prevoza od 1⁄6 šekela dnevno za plovilo od 60 gura.[5][6][4]

Godine 1816. arheološkim iskopavanjem u Minji u Egiptu (pod ejaletom Osmanskog carstva) otkrivena je ploča iz doba dinastije Nerva-Antonini iz ruševina Antinojevog hrama u Antinopolju Rimskog Egipta, koja je propisivala pravila i članarinu za sahranu društvenog kolegijuma osnovanog u Lanuvijumu u Italiji približno 133. godine za vreme Hadrijana (117–138) u Rimskom carstvu.[7]

Kolegijum je bilo koje udruženje u starom Rimu koje je delovalo kao pravno lice. Nakon usvajanja Leks Julije za vreme vladavine Julija Cezara kao konzula i diktatora Rimske republike (49–44 pne), i njihove ponovne potvrde tokom vladavine Oktavijana Avgusta kao predsedavajućeg senatora i imperatora rimske armije (27. pne - 14. godine), kolegijumima je bilo neophodno odobrenje Rimskog senata ili cara da bi bili ovlašteni kao pravna tela.[8] Ruševine u Lambezisu datiraju formiranje pogrobnih društava među vojnicima Rimske armije i mornarima Rimske mornarice do vladavine Septimija Severa (193–211) 198. godine.[9] U septembru 2011. arheološka istraživanja obavljena na mestu veštačke luke Portus u Rimu otkrila su natpise u brodogradilištu izgrađenom za vreme Trajana (98–117) koji ukazuju na postojanje ceha brodograditelja.[10] Rimska luka La Ostija bila je dom ceha za corpus naviculariorum, kolegijuma trgovačkih pomoraca.[11] Kolegijum je takođe uključivao bratstva rimskih sveštenika koji su nadgledali ritualne žrtve, praktikovali proricanje, čuvali svete spise, organizovali festivale i održavali specifične verske kultove.[12]

Reference[уреди | уреди извор]

  1. ^ Powell, Marvin A. (1995). „Metrology and Mathematics in Ancient Mesopotamia”. Ур.: Sasson, Jack M. Civilizations of the Ancient Near EastНеопходна слободна регистрација. III. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. стр. 1955. ISBN 0-684-19279-9. 
  2. ^ Hammurabi (1903). Превод: Sommer, Otto. „Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon”. Records of the Past. Washington, DC: Records of the Past Exploration Society. 2 (3): 85. Приступљено 20. 6. 2021. »234. If a shipbuilder builds ... as a present [compensation].« 
  3. ^ Hammurabi (1904). „Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon” (PDF). Liberty Fund. Превод: Harper, Robert Francis (2nd изд.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. стр. 83. Приступљено 20. 6. 2021. »§234. If a boatman build ... silver as his wage.« 
  4. ^ а б Hammurabi (1910). „Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon”. Avalon Project. Превод: King, Leonard William. New Haven, CT: Yale Law School. Приступљено 20. 6. 2021. 
  5. ^ Hammurabi (1903). Превод: Sommer, Otto. „Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon”. Records of the Past. Washington, DC: Records of the Past Exploration Society. 2 (3): 88. Приступљено 20. 6. 2021. »275. If anyone hires a ... day as rent therefor.« 
  6. ^ Hammurabi (1904). „Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon” (PDF). Liberty Fund. Превод: Harper, Robert Francis (2nd изд.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. стр. 95. Приступљено 20. 6. 2021. »§275. If a man hire ... its hire per day.« 
  7. ^ The Documentary History of Insurance, 1000 B.C.–1875 A.D. Newark, NJ: Prudential Press. 1915. стр. 5–6. Приступљено 15. 6. 2021. 
  8. ^ de Ligt, L. (2001). „D. 47,22, 1, pr.-1 and the Formation of Semi-Public "Collegia". Latomus. 60 (2): 346—349. ISSN 0023-8856. JSTOR 41539517. 
  9. ^ Ginsburg, Michael (1940). „Roman military clubs and their social functions”. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 71: 149—156. JSTOR 283119. doi:10.2307/283119. 
  10. ^ Welsh, Jennifer (23. 9. 2011). „Huge Ancient Roman Shipyard Unearthed in Italy”. Live Science. Future. Приступљено 23. 6. 2021. 
  11. ^ Epstein, Steven A. (1995). Wage Labor and Guilds in Medieval Europe. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. стр. 10—49. ISBN 978-0807844984. 
  12. ^ Lintott, Andrew (1999). The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. стр. 183–186. ISBN 978-0198150688. 

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