Naučna metoda

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије

Naučna metoda označava proces kojim naučnici dolaze do spoznaja o određenim fenomenima putem postavljanja pretpostavki te njihovog provjeravanja kroz eksperimente.[1][2] Da bi imao naučni karakter, istraživački metod mora biti zasnovan na prikupljanju primetne, empirijske i merljive evidencije.[3] Naučni metod je: „metod postupaka koji su osobeni za prirodne nauke od 17. veka, i koji se sastoje od sistematskih posmatranja, merenja i eksperimenta, kao i formulacije, testiranja i menjanje hipoteza“.[4]

Референце[уреди]

  1. ^ Max Born (1949). Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance. Peter Smith. 
  2. ^ Alfred Scharff Goldhaber, Michael Martin Nieto (January–March 2010). „Photon and graviton mass limits“. Rev. Mod. Phys. (American Physical Society) 82: 939-979. DOI:10.1103/RevModPhys.82.939. 
  3. ^ „Newton's Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)“. 
  4. ^ „Definition of scientific from Oxford Dictionaries Online“. 

Dodatna literatura[уреди]

  • Bauer, Henry H., Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, 1992
  • Beveridge, William I. B., The Art of Scientific Investigation, Heinemann, Melbourne, Australia, 1950.
  • Bernstein, Richard J., Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1983.
  • Bozinovski, Stevo, Consequence Driven Systems: Teaching, Learning, and Self-Learning Agents, GOCMAR Publishers, Bitola, Macedonia, 1991.
  • Brody, Baruch A. and Capaldi, Nicholas, Science: Men, Methods, Goals: A Reader: Methods of Physical Science, W. A. Benjamin, 1968
  • Brody, Baruch A., and Grandy, Richard E., Readings in the Philosophy of Science, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
  • Burks, Arthur W., Chance, Cause, Reason — An Inquiry into the Nature of Scientific Evidence, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Alan Chalmers. What is this thing called science?. Queensland University Press and Open University Press, 1976.
  • Chomsky, Noam, Reflections on Language, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, 1975.
  • Crick, Francis (1988). What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09137-7. .
  • Dewey, John, How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • Earman, John (ed.), Inference, Explanation, and Other Frustrations: Essays in the Philosophy of Science, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA, 1992.
  • Fraassen, Bas C. van, The Scientific Image, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1980.
  • Franklin, James (2009). What Science Knows: And How It Knows It. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 1594032076. .
  • Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Reason in the Age of Science, Frederick G. Lawrence (trans.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
  • Giere, Ronald N. (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science, vol. 15 in 'Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science', University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1992.
  • Hacking, Ian, Representing and Intervening, Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983.
  • Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Beyond, Encounters and Conversations, A.J. Pomerans (trans.), Harper and Row, New York, NY 1971, pp. 63–64.
  • Holton, Gerald, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, 1st edition 1973, revised edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., The Essential Tension, Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Latour, Bruno, Science in Action, How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.
  • Losee, John, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1972. 2nd edition, 1980.
  • Maxwell, Nicholas, The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998. Paperback 2003.
  • Maclyn McCarty (1985) The Transforming Principle: Discovering that genes are made of DNA. New York: W. W. Norton. 252 p. ISBN 0-393-30450-7. Memoir of a researcher in the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment.
  • McComas, William F., ed. The Principal Elements of the Nature of Science: Dispelling the MythsPDF (189 KB), from The Nature of Science in Science Education, pp53–70, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 1998.
  • Misak, Cheryl J., Truth and the End of Inquiry, A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1991.
  • Newell, Allen, Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990.
  • Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo (ed.), Language and Learning, The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
  • Popper, Karl R., Unended Quest, An Intellectual Autobiography, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1982.
  • Putnam, Hilary, Renewing Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
  • Rorty, Richard, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1979.
  • Salmon, Wesley C., Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1990.
  • Shimony, Abner, Search for a Naturalistic World View: Vol. 1, Scientific Method and Epistemology, Vol. 2, Natural Science and Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993.
  • Thagard, Paul, Conceptual Revolutions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1992.
  • Ziman, John (2000). Real Science: what it is, and what it means. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.