Engleski građanski rat

Iz Vikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Idi na navigaciju Idi na pretragu
Engleski građanski rat
Battle of Naseby.jpg
Pobeda parlamentaraca kod Nejzbija 1645, odlučujuća pobeda u ratu.
Vreme:1642-1653.
Mesto:Engleska, Škotska i Irska.
Uzrok:Protivljenje engleskog parlamenta kraljevom apsolutizmu.
Rezultat: Pobeda parlamenta i stvaranje Engleske Republike (1653—1660).
Teritorijalne
promene:
Škotska i Irska okupirane.
Sukobljene strane
Engleski parlamentarci Engleski rojalisti
Škotski rojalisti
Irski rojalisti
Komandanti i vođe
Robert Eseks
Tomas Ferfeks
Oliver Kromvel
Čarls I
Rupert od Palatinata
Čarls II
David Lesli
Žrtve i gubici
50.000[1] 34.000[1]
Mapa teritorije koju je držala kraljeva vojska (crveno), i parlamentarna vojska (zeleno), prvi građanski rat 1642 — 1645
Charles I by Daniel Mytens.jpg
Oliver Kromvel

Engleski građanski rat, ponekad zvan i Engleska revolucija je naziv za niz oružanih sukoba koji su se odigrali na Britanskom ostrvu sredinom 17. veka, a koji svoj izvor imaju u sukobu između engleskog kralja Čarlsa I i engleskog Parlamenta. Od 1642. do 1660. godine vođena su četiri građanska rata na Britanskim ostrvima:[2]

  • Prvi građanski rat (1642—1647)
  • Drugi građanski rat (1648—1649)
  • Irski rat (1641—1653) i
  • Škotski rat (1650—1651).

Sukob je bio političke i verske prirode. Čarls je nasledio englesko presto od bivšeg škotskog kralja Džejmsa I iz dinastije Stjuart. Iako je bio nominalni poglavar Anglikanske crkve, mnogi su ga u Engleskoj smatrali prikrivenim katolikom. Čarls je takođe smatrao da engleski vladar, poput ostalih u Evropi tog doba, ima božansko pravo vladanja i da niko, uključujući Parlament nema pravo da dovodi u pitanje njegov autoritet i odluke. S druge strane u Engleskoj i Škotskoj u to doba nastavio je da cveta protestantizam u ekstremnim oblicima, uključujući puritanizam čiji su predstavnici stjuartovsku monarhiju držali raskalašnom i grešnom.

Čarlsov pokušaj zaustavljanja takvih tendencija u Škotskoj doveo je do Biskupskih ratova u kojima je njegova vojska sramotno potučena, a Parlament odbio dalje finansiranje vojnih operacija te se Čarls za pomoć obratio svojim katoličkim podanicima u Irskoj, što je 1642. godine dovelo do stvaranja dve vojske – kraljeve i parlamentarne – koje su se počele sukobljavati jedna s drugom.

Rat je trajao tri godine i nakon početnog niza neodlučnih bitaka došla je do izražaja ekonomska premoć gradova, koji su podržavali Parlament, nad selom koje je podržavalo kralja. Parlamentarci su imali veći elan, ali i sposobnijeg zapovednika u liku Olivera Kromvela čijom je zaslugom Čarls konačno poražen i zarobljen godine 1645.

Tri godine kasnije, dok je Parlament odlučivao o kraljevoj sudbini, ponovno je izbila rojalistička pobuna – drugi građanski rat. Ekstremisti u parlamentarnoj stranci su to iskoristili kao priliku za puč, pa je Čarls suđen za izdaju i pogubljen godine 1649.

Kromvel je posle suzbio rojalističke pobune na čelu s Čarlsovim sinom Čarlsom II u Irskoj i Škotskoj. To je imalo naročito teške posledice u Irskoj, gde je ubijeno oko 30% stanovništva, a sve zemlje u vlasništvu katolika su konfiskovane i predane Kromvelovim veteranima.

Kao posledica ratova Engleska je postala republika, odnosno diktatura na čelu s Oliverom Kromvelom. Iako je kromvelovski režim nestao nedugo nakon njegove smrti te se Čarls II vratio na presto, rat je kao trajnu posledicu ostavio napuštanje koncepta o božanskom pravu kraljeva, pa su svi budući engleski kraljevi bili prisiljeni da vladaju uz blagoslov zakonodavne vlasti. Zato se smatra da je upravo engleski građanski rat zaslužan za stvaranje moderne demokratije na Britanskom ostrvu, odnosno koncepta liberalne demokratije u današnjem zapadnom svetu.

Vidi još[uredi]

Reference[uredi]

  1. 1,0 1,1 „English civil wars”. History.com. Pristupljeno 4. 10. 2014. 
  2. ^ Gažević, Nikola (1974). Vojna enciklopedija (tom 2). Beograd: Vojnoizdavački zavod. str. 691—693. 

Literatura[uredi]

  • Abbott, Jacob, „Chapter: Downfall of Strafford and Laud”, Charles I 
  • Atkin, Malcolm (2008), Worcester 1651, Barnsley: Pen and Sword, ISBN 978-1-84415-080-9 
  • Aylmer, G. E. (1980), „The Historical Background”, Ur.: Patrides, C.A.; Waddington, Raymond B., The Age of Milton: Backgrounds to Seventeenth-Century Literature, Manchester: Manchester University Press, str. 1—33 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ur. (1911), „Great Rebellion”, Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 (11. izd.), Cambridge University Press, str. 404 
  • Baker, Anthony (1986), A Battlefield Atlas of the English Civil War, Shepperton, UK: Routledge 
  • EB staff (5. 9. 2016a), „Glorious Revolution”, Encyclopædia Britannica 
  • staff, EB (2. 12. 2016b), „Second and third English Civil Wars”, Encyclopædia Britannica 
  • Brett, A. C. A. (2008), Charles II and His Court, Read Books, ISBN 978-1-140-20445-9 
  • Burgess, Glenn (1990), „Historiographical reviews on revisionism: an analysis of early Stuart historiography in the 1970s and 1980s”, The Historical Journal, 33 (3): 609—27, doi:10.1017/s0018246x90000013 
  • Burne, Alfred H.; Young, Peter (1998), The Great Civil War: A Military History of the First Civil War 1642–1646, London, UK: Windrush Press 
  • Carlton, Charles (1987), Archbishop William Laud, London: Routledge and Keagan Paul 
  • Carlton, Charles (1992), The Experience of the British Civil Wars, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-10391-6 
  • Carlton, Charles (1995), Charles I: The Personal Monarch, Great Britain: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-12141-5 
  • Carlton, Charles (1995a), Going to the wars: The experience of the British civil wars, 1638–1651, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-10391-6 
  • Carpenter, Stanley D. M. (2005), Military leadership in the British civil wars, 1642–1651: The Genius of This Age, Abingdon: Frank Cass 
  • Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-61395-5 
  • Coward, Barry (1994), The Stuart Age, London: Longman, ISBN 978-0-582-48279-1 
  • Coward, Barry (2003), The Stuart age: England, 1603–1714, Harlow: Pearson Education 
  • Dand, Charles Hendry (1972), The Mighty Affair: how Scotland lost her parliament, Oliver and Boyd 
  • Fairfax, Thomas (18. 5. 1648), „House of Lords Journal Volume 10: 19 May 1648: Letter from L. Fairfax, about the Disposal of the Forces, to suppress the Insurrections in Suffolk, Lancashire, and S. Wales; and for Belvoir Castle to be secured”, Journal of the House of Lords: volume 10: 1648–1649, Institute of Historical Research, Arhivirano iz originala na datum 28. 9. 2007, Pristupljeno 28. 2. 2007 
  • Gardiner, Samuel R. (2006), History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate 1649–1660, Elibron Classics 
  • Gaunt, Peter (2000), The English Civil War: the essential readings, Blackwell essential readings in history (illustrated izd.), Wiley-Blackwell, str. 60, ISBN 978-0-631-20809-9 
  • Goldsmith, M. M. (1966), Hobbes's Science of Politics, Ithaca, NY: Columbia University Press, str. x—xiii 
  • Gregg, Pauline (1981), King Charles I, London: Dent 
  • Gregg, Pauline (1984), King Charles I, Berkeley: University of California Press 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1968), Charles I, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 
  • Hobbes, Thomas (1839), The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, London: J. Bohn, str. 220 
  • Johnston, William Dawson (1901), The history of England from the accession of James the Second, I, Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, str. 83–86 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1993), Cavaliers & Roundheads: the English Civil War, 1642–1649, Scribner 
  • Hill, Christopher (1972), The World Turned Upside Down: Radical ideas during the English Revolution, London: Viking 
  • Hughes, Ann (1985), „The king, the parliament, and the localities during the English Civil War”, Journal of British Studies, 24 (2): 236—63, JSTOR 175704, doi:10.1086/385833 
  • Hughes, Ann (1991), The Causes of the English Civil War, London: Macmillan 
  • King, Peter (jul 1968), „The Episcopate during the Civil Wars, 1642–1649”, The English Historical Review, 83 (328): 523—37, JSTOR 564164, doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxiii.cccxxviii.523 
  • James, Lawarance (2003) [2001], Warrior Race: A History of the British at War, New York: St. Martin's Press, str. 187, ISBN 978-0-312-30737-0 
  • Kraynak, Robert P. (1990), History and Modernity in the Thought of Thomas Hobbes, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, str. 33 
  • John, Terry (2008), The Civil War in Pembrokeshire, Logaston Press 
  • Kaye, Harvey J. (1995), The British Marxist historians: an introductory analysis, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-312-12733-6 
  • Keeble, N. H. (2002), The Restoration: England in the 1660s, Oxford: Blackwell 
  • Kelsey, Sean (2003), „The Trial of Charles I”, English Historical Review, 118 (477): 583—616, doi:10.1093/ehr/118.477.583 
  • Kennedy, D. E. (2000), The English Revolution, 1642–1649, London: Macmillan 
  • Kenyon, J.P. (1978), Stuart England, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books 
  • Kirby, Michael (22. 1. 1999), The trial of King Charles I – defining moment for our constitutional liberties (PDF), speech to the Anglo-Australasian Lawyers association 
  • Leniham, Pádraig (2008), Consolidating Conquest: Ireland 1603–1727, Harlow: Pearson Education 
  • Lindley, Keith (1997), Popular politics and religion in Civil War London, Scolar Press 
  • Lodge, Richard (2007), The History of England – From the Restoration to the Death of William III (1660–1702), Read Books 
  • Macgillivray, Royce (1970), „Thomas Hobbes's History of the English Civil War A Study of Behemoth”, Journal of the History of Ideas, 31 (2): 179 
  • McClelland, J. S. (1996), A History of Western Political Thought, London: Routledge 
  • Newman, P. R. (2006), Atlas of the English Civil War, London: Routledge 
  • Norton, Mary Beth (2011), Separated by Their Sex: Women in Public and Private in the Colonial Atlantic World., Cornell University Press, str. ~93, ISBN 978-0801461378 
  • Ohlmeyer, Jane (2002), „Civil Wars of the Three Kingdoms”, History Today, Arhivirano iz originala na datum 5. 2. 2008, Pristupljeno 31. 5. 2010 
  • O'Riordan, Christopher (1993), „Popular Exploitation of Enemy Estates in the English Revolution”, History, 78 (253): 184—200, doi:10.1111/j.1468-229x.1993.tb01577.x, Arhivirano iz originala na datum 26. 10. 2009 
  • Pipes, Richard (1999), Property and Freedom, Alfred A. Knopf 
  • Plant, David (5. 6. 2002), British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638–60: Episcopy, British Civil Wars, Pristupljeno 12. 8. 2011 
  • Plant, David (3. 8. 2009), The Committee of Safety, British Civil Wars, Pristupljeno 25. 11. 2009 
  • Purkiss, Diane (2007), The English Civil War: A People's History, London: Harper Perennial 
  • Reid, Stuart; Turner, Graham (2004), Dunbar 1650: Cromwell's most famous victory, Botley: Osprey 
  • Rosner, Lisa; Theibault, John (2000), A Short History of Europe, 1600–1815: Search for a Reasonable World, New York: M.E. Sharpe 
  • Royle, Trevor (2006) [2004], Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638–1660, London: Abacus, ISBN 978-0-349-11564-1 
  • Russell, Geoffrey, ur. (1998), Who's who in British History: A-H., 1, str. 417 
  • Russell, Conrad, ur. (1973), The Origins of the English Civil War, Problems in focus series, London: Macmillan, OCLC 699280 
  • Seel, Graham E. (1999), The English Wars and Republic, 1637–1660, London: Routledge 
  • Sharp, David (2000), England in crisis 1640–60, Oxford: Heinneman 
  • Sherwood, Roy Edward (1992), The Civil War in the Midlands, 1642–1651, Alan Sutton 
  • Sherwood, Roy Edward (1997), Oliver Cromwell: King In All But Name, 1653–1658, New York: St Martin's Press 
  • Smith, David L. (1999), The Stuart Parliaments 1603–1689, London: Arnold 
  • Smith, Lacey Baldwin (1983), This realm of England, 1399 to 1688. (3rd izd.), D.C. Heath, str. 251 
  • Sommerville, Johann P. (1992), „Parliament, Privilege, and the Liberties of the Subject”, Ur.: Hexter, Jack H., Parliament and Liberty from the Reign of Elizabeth to the English Civil War, str. 65, 71, 80 
  • Sommerville, J.P. (13. 11. 2012), „Thomas Hobbes”, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Arhivirano iz originala na datum 04. 07. 2017, Pristupljeno 13. 03. 2019 
  • Stoyle, Mark (17. 2. 2011), History – British History in depth: Overview: Civil War and Revolution, 1603–1714, BBC 
  • Trevelyan, George Macaulay (2002), England Under the Stuarts, London: Routledge 
  • Upham, Charles Wentworth (1842), Jared Sparks, ur., Life of Sir Henry Vane, Fourth Governor of Massachusetts in The Library of American Biography, New York: Harper & Brothers, ISBN 978-1115288026 
  • Walter, John (1999), Understanding Popular Violence in the English Revolution: The Colchester Plunderers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Wanklyn, Malcolm; Jones, Frank (2005), A Military History of the English Civil War, 1642–1646: Strategy and Tactics, Harlow: Pearson Education 
  • Wedgwood, C. V. (1970), The King's War: 1641–1647, London: Fontana 
  • Weiser, Brian (2003), Charles II and the Politics of Access, Woodbridge: Boydell 
  • White, Matthew (januar 2012), Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th century: British Isles, 1641–52 
  • Young, Peter; Holmes, Richard (1974), The English Civil War: a military history of the three civil wars 1642–1651, Eyre Methuen 
  • Ashley, Maurice (1990), The English Civil War, Sutton 
  • Bennett, Martyn (1999), Historical Dictionary of the British and Irish Civil Wars 1637–1660, Scarecrow Press 
  • Boyer, Richard E., ur. (1966), Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan revolt; failure of a man or a faith?, Boston, Heath  – excerpts from primary and secondary sources.
  • Clarendon (1717), History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England: Begun in the Year 1641 : Volume I, Part 1, Volume I, Part 2, Volume II, Part 1, Volume II, Part 2, Volume III, Part 1, Volume III, Part 2
    • Clarendon (1827), The Life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon, in which is included a Continuation of his History of the Grand Rebellion, Clarendon Press : Volume I, Volume II, Volume III
  • Cust, Richard; Hughes, Ann, ur. (1997), The English Civil War, Arnold  – emphasis on historiography.
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1886—1901), History of the Great Civil War, 1642–1649 : Volume I (1642–1644); Volume II (1644–1647); Volume III (1645–1647); Volume IV (1647–1649), The basic narrative history used by all other scholars.
  • Ludlow, Edmund (1894), C.H. Firth, ur., The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow Lieutenant-General of the Horse in the Army of the Commonwealth of England 1625–1672, Oxford: Clarendon Press 
  • Morrill, John (2014), The nature of the English Revolution, Routledge  – 20 essays by Morrill.
  • Prior, Charles W.A.; Burgess, Glenn, ur. (2013), England's wars of religion, revisited, Ashgate  – 14 scholars discuss the argument of John Morrill that the English Civil War was the last war of religion, rather than the first modern revolution. excerpt; historiography pp. 1–25.
  • Scott, Jonathan (2000), England's Troubles: Seventeenth-century English political instability in European context, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-42334-2 
  • Wiemann, Dirk, ur. (2016), Perspectives on English Revolutionary Republicanism, Routledge 
  • Woolrych, Austin (2002), Britain in revolution: 1625–1660, Oxford University Press 

Spoljašnje veze[uredi]