Википедија:Навођење извора

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Извори на Википедији
Три основна правила о садржају
Проверљивост
Без оригиналног истраживања
Неутрална тачка гледишта
Смернице
Поуздани извори
Навођење извора
Када наводити изворе
Информације и помоћ
Референцирање у тексту
Референцирање за почетнике
Фусноте
Референцирање у загради

Навођење извора, такође популарно звано и навођење литературе, важан је део једног чланка на Википедији, и служи да би се лакше идентификовали поуздани извори на основу којих је написан чланак. У већини случаја, извори за специфичне информације дати су у форми фуснота (подбелешки), мада такође постоје и други начини референцирања у самом тексту.

Википедијино правило о проверљивости извора каже да се морају наводити извори на основу којих је чланак написан, а такође и који извори могу да се сматрају поузданима. Навођење извора у самом тексту неопходно је за сваки материјал који је споран или је врло вероватно да може постати споран, као и цитати, било где у главном именском простору. Ипак, најбоље би било кад би се за сваку информацију на Википедији могао додати извор у самом тексту и таква пракса код уредника има веома велику подршку. Свака информација без инлајн референце може бити неочекивано доведена у питање и постати спорна, или чак и уклоњена.

Ова страница садржи информације како постављати и како форматирати инлајн референце.

Иако има више начина навођења извора, у једном чланку мора да се користи само један метод. Ако чланак већ има наведене изворе у тексту, додајте нове у складу са форматом који је у том чланку коришћен, или на страници за разговор потрудите се да постигнете консезус пре него што га промените.

Иако је битно да форматирање референци буде како треба, још је битније да наведете што више информација које идентификују извор. Ако нисте вични форматирању, потрудите се да оставите што више информација о извору, већ ће неко други да се побрине за њихово правилно форматирање.

Садржај

Писмо и језик извора[уреди]

  • Ако сте користили изворе на страном језику, онда их наводите у оригиналу, језиком и писмом примерка који сте користили. Ако сте користили превод неког извора, онда га наводите језиком и писмом превода који сте користили.
  • Ако сте користили изворе на српском језику, онда их наводите у писму у ком је писан чланак на Википедији. Не постоји ниједан оправдан разлог да се поштује писмо којим је штампан извор.

Зашто је добро наводити изворе?[уреди]

Навођењем поузданих и проверљивих извора у Википедијином садржају, омогућавате другим уредницима или читаоцима да провере информацију коју уносите у чланак, и тиме унапређујете кредибилитет Википедије тако што тиме показујете да материјал на Википедији није оригинално истраживање. Такође помажете читаоцима да дођу до додатних информација о теми чланка; а такође избегавате плагијат (тако што наводите извор одакле потичу ваше речи и идеје).

  • Пружа се могућност читаоцу да провери информацију, ако то жели;
  • Доприноси се поузданости чланка;
  • Доприноси се кредибилитету Википедије дизањем нивоа њене поузданости и проверљивости;
  • Доказује се да материјал који се нуди на Википедији није оригинално истраживање;
  • Смањује се вероватноћа уредничких сукоба око садржаја.
  • Помажете читаоцима да дођу до додатних информација о теми чланка.
  • Избегавате плагијат (тако што наводите извор одакле потичу ваше речи и идеје)


Напомена: чланци Википедије не могу бити коришћени као извори.

Како се све може навести извор?[уреди]

  • Пун библиографски податак подразумева навођење свих неопходних библиографских података извора, и кад је то могуће, и тачног места (нпр. број странице) где се у извору налази одређена информација која се референцира извором, нпр.: Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, стр. 1.

Овакав начин навођења извора најчешће је коришћен на Википедији и обично се појављује у форми фусноте.

  • Навођење извора у самом тексту или инлајн референцирање значи навођење извора одмах уз материјал који се референцира, на пример, на крају реченице или пасуса, и обично у форми фусноте.
  • Опште навођење извора јесте навођење извора који јесу коришћени за писање чланка, али нису убачени у сам текст, него су излистани на крају чланка (обично по азбучном реду) и под насловом Литература или Извори. Извори у оваквој форми обично су наведени у кратким и штурим чланцима или у чланцима за које је коришћен само један извор. Овако наведени извори се такође могу појавити и у детаљнијим и боље обрађеним чланцима као додатак изворима унетим у сам текст (инлајн референцама).
  • Кратка инлајн референца је извор унесен у сам текст који само идентификује обично име аутора и место у извору где се одређена информација може наћи, али без осталих библиографских података, који су наведени општим навођењем извора, под насловом Литература или Извори. На пример: Радић, стр. 4. Кратке инлајн референце могу да се уносе у сам текст виду фуснота или у заградама.
  • Приписивање у самом тексту значи да се у самом чланку као део текста (а не само као фуснота) наведе извор за одређене информације. Овај систем се примењује нарочито кад се наводе нечија мишљења и ставови, непоуздане информације или непотврђене чињенице, као и цитати или парафразирање нечијих изјава. Када се извор наводи у самом тексту, не дају се све информације о извору — оне се обично дају у фусноти (или и одељку „Литература“) на уобичајен начин као код инлајн референце. Нпр.: Према речима Бориса Тадића3... Погледајте ниже Приписивање у самом тексту.

Када наводити изворе[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Википедија:Када наводити изворе
Навођење изора је нарочито потребно
  1. кад се ради о спорном материјалу или материјалу који ће врло вероватно бити оспорен — ако се за такав материјал не може наћи поуздан извор, треба га уклонити из чланка;
  2. када цитирате неког, уз наводнике или без њих, или поприлично верно парафразирате извор;
  3. за изјаве о живим особама, а нарочито кад су те тврдње претенциозне или потенцијално увредљиве. У складу са биографијама о живим особама, тврдње овог типа за које не постоје извори треба да се уклоне из чланка.

Међутим, навођење извора није ограничено само на ове ситурације. Уредници треба да наводе изворе за било коју информацију коју уносе у чланак.

Извори се не морају навести
  1. на вишезначним страницама (извори треба да се наводе у чланцима које оне садрже);
  2. у уводима чланака боље је не наводити изворе, пошто увод представља кратак сажетак оног о чему ће се детаљније говорити у чланку, и где би заправо те тврдње требало да буду потпоногнуте навођењем извора; ипак, цитати и изузетно контроверзне тврдње треба да буду референциране, па чак и у самом уводу.

Што се слика и осталих медијских фајлова тиче, појединости о њиховом пореклу и статусу ауторског права наведене су на њиховим страницама за датотеке. Такође, текстови испод слика треба да буду референцирани кад је то неопходно, као и било који други део чланка. С друге стране, није неопходно наводити изворе у алтернативним текстовима за слике, који је доступан кад се мишем пређе преко слике, или за текст који само идентификује извор слике (нпр. „Мона Лиза (Леонардо да Винчи)“ за Датотека:Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg.

Опште навођење извора[уреди]

Опште навођење извора се односи на навођење поузданог извора који референцира садржај чланка али се није уносио у сам текст (тј. није се користио за инлајн референцирање). Опште наведени извори обично су излистани на крају чланка и под насловом Литература или Извори и поређани су азбучним редом према презимену аутора.

Примери општег навођења извора дати су нешто ниже, у одељцима Кратке инлајн референце и Референцирање у загради.

Када се у самом тексту користе кратке инлајн референце или референце у загради, у одељку „Литература“ или „Извори“ треба навести такође и пуне библиографске податке тих извора који су коришћени у самом тексту, а није дат њихов пун библиографски податак. У кратким и штурим чланцима опште навођење извора може постојати чак и онда кад извори нису наведени у самом тексту, или када је целокупан садржај чланка заснован на само једном извору. Мана општег навођења извора у овом облику јесте у томе да се губи интегритет односа текста и извора, осим ако је чланак врло кратак.

Навођење извора у тексту[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Википедија:Референцирање у тексту

Навођење извора у самом тексту омогућава читаоцу да повеже одређену информацију у тексту са специфичним извором који потврђује дати текст. Извори наведени у самом тексту се најчешће уносе у текст путем фуснота (дугих или кратких), или референцирањем у загради. Овај одељак описује како употребити било који од та два начина, а такође описује и како направити списак извора са комплетним библиографским подацима који служе као додатна информација и обавезни део скраћених инлајн референци или референци датих у згради.

Фусноте[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Помоћ:Фусноте

Како додати изворе у тексту користећи фусноте[уреди]

За додавање фусноте у текст, користите код <ref>...</ref> на крају реченице или пасуса који желите да референцирате. Овако:

  • Правда је људски изум.<ref>Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 1.</ref> Она...

То ће се у тексту видети овако:

  • Правда је људски изум.[1] Она...

Такође ће бити неопходно да створите и листу фуснота (где би се заправо појавио текст референце); за то, погледајте следећи одељак.

Као што се види у горњем примеру, референца се додаје одмах иза знакова интерпункције, као што су тачке или зарези, без белине (тј. простора).

Извор треба додати близу материјала који референцира, чиме се постиже интегритет односа текст-извор. Ако су реч или израз изразито пристрасни, инлајн референца може да се дода одмах иза речи или израза у оквиру реченице, али обично је сасвим довољно да се референца додаје на крају реченице или пасуса, и једино је битно да буде јасно који извор референцира који део текста. Ако текст у инфокутији или табели садржи текст који треба да се референцира, а у инфобокс или табелу се не може убацити референца, онда она мора да се појави у тексту испод слике или у неком другом тексту који се односи на материјал у питању.

Како направити списак фуснота[уреди]

The first editor to add footnotes to an article must create a section where the text of those citations appears. This section is placed at or near the bottom of the article and is usually titled "Notes" or "References." For more about the order and titles of sections at the end of an article (which may also include "Further reading" and "External links" sections), see Wikipedia:Footers.

With some exceptions discussed below, citations appear in a single section containing only the <references /> tag or the {{reflist}} template. For example:

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

The footnotes will then automatically be listed under that section heading. Each numbered footnote marker in the text is a clickable link to the corresponding footnote, and each footnote contains a caret which links back to the corresponding point in the text. Scrolling lists, or lists of citations appearing within a scroll box, should never be used. This is because of issues with readability, browser compatibility, accessibility, printing, and site mirroring.[1]

If an article contains a list of general references, this is placed in a separate section, titled (for example) "References". This usually comes immediately after the section(s) listing footnotes, if any. (If the general references section is called "References", then the citations section is usually called "Notes".)

Одвајање извора од објашњења у фуснотама[уреди]

If an article contains both footnoted citations and other (explanatory) footnotes, then it is possible (but not necessary) to divide them into two separate lists, using the grouping feature described in the Grouping footnotes section of the footnotes help page. The explanatory footnotes and the citations are then placed in separate sections, called (for example) "Notes" and "References" respectively.

Извори који се понављају[уреди]

For multiple use of the same citation or footnote, you can also use the named references feature, choosing a name to identify the citation, and typing <ref name="name">text of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be reused any number of times by typing just <ref name="name" />. For more details of this syntax, see Multiple references to the same footnote on the footnotes help page.

Избегавање конфузије[уреди]

Инлајн референце понекад могу да затрпају текст кад се отвори прозор за уређивање што изузетно много отежава сналажење у тексту. Постоје три метода да се ово избегне: списак излистаних извора, кратке инлајн референце и референце у заградама. Inline references can significantly bloat the wikitext in the edit window and can be extremely difficult and confusing. There are three methods that avoid clutter in the edit window: list-defined references, short citations or parenthetical references. (As with other citation formats, articles should not undergo large scale conversion between formats without consensus to do so.)

Citing multiple pages of the same source[уреди]

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, most Wikipedia editors use short citations in footnotes. Other methods include short citations in parenthesis and the template {{rp}}.

The use of ibid., Id. (or similar abbreviations) is discouraged, as these may become broken as new references are added (op. cit. is less problematic in that it should refer explicitly to a citation contained in the article; however, not all readers are familiar with the meaning of the terms). If the use of ibid is extensive, use the {{ibid}} template.

Short citations [уреди]

Пречица:
WP:CITESHORT
Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Help:Shortened footnotes

Some Wikipedia articles use short citations, giving summary information about the source together with a page number, as in <ref>Smith 2010, p. 1.</ref>. These are used together with general references, which give full details of the sources, but without page numbers, and are listed in a separate "References" section. Short citations are used in articles which apply parenthetical referencing (see below), but they can also be used as footnote citations, as described here.

Forms of short citations used include author-date referencing (APA style, Harvard style, or Chicago style), and author-title or author-page referencing (MLA style or Chicago style). As before, the list of footnotes is automatically generated in a "Notes" or "Footnotes" section, which immediately precedes the "References" section containing the general references. Short citations can be written manually, or by using the {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}} templates. (Note that templates should not be added without consensus to an article that already uses a consistent referencing style.) The short citations and general references may be linked so that the reader can click on the short note to find full information about the source. See the template documentation for details and solutions to common problems. For variations with and without templates, see wikilinks to full references. For a set of realistic examples, see these.

This is how short citations look in the edit box:

The Sun is pretty big,<ref>Miller 2005, p. 23.</ref> but the Moon is not so big.<ref>Brown 2006, p. 46.</ref> The Sun is also quite hot.<ref>Miller 2005, p. 34.</ref>

== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

== References ==
*Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon," ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, Edward (2005). ''The Sun''. Academic Press.

This is how they look in the article:

The Sun is pretty big,[1] but the Moon is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller 2005, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown 2006, p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller 2005, p. 34.

References


  • Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, Edward (2005). The Sun. Academic Press.

Shortened notes using titles rather than publication dates would look like this in the article:

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown, "Size of the Moon", p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 34.

When using manual links it is easy to introduce errors such as duplicate anchors and unused references. The script User:Ucucha/HarvErrors will show many related errors. Duplicate anchors may be found by using the W3C Markup Validation Service.

Референцирање у загради[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Википедија:Референцирање у загради

While most articles use footnote citations as described in the above sections, some articles use a parenthetical referencing style. Here, short citations in parentheses, such as (Smith 2010, p. 1), are placed within the article text itself. Full details of each source used are given in a general reference, e.g. Smith, John. Name of Book. Cambridge University Press, 2010. The general references are listed in alphabetical order, according to the authors' surnames, at the end of the article in a "References" section.

Several forms of short citation are used in Wikipedia; see Short citations above. The inline citation and general reference may be linked using a template (see linking inline and full citations); as with other citation templates, these should not be added to articles without consensus.

This is how it looks in the edit box:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3).
== References ==
*Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press.

This is how it looks in the article:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3).

References


  • Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press.

Notice that, unlike footnotes, parenthetical references are placed before adjacent punctuation such as commas and full stops.

What information to include [уреди]

Пречица:
WP:CITEHOW

Listed below is the information which a typical inline citation or general reference will provide, in order to identify the source, assist readers in finding it, and (in the case of inline citations) indicate the place in the source where the information is to be found. (If an article uses parenthetical referencing or short citations, then the inline citations will refer to this information in abbreviated form, as described in the relevant sections above.)

Books[уреди]

Пречица:
WP:EBOOK

Citations for books typically include the name of the author(s), the title of the book (in italics), the volume if applicable, the city of publication (optional), the name of the publisher, the year of publication, and the ISBN number (optional), written using the syntax described at WP:ISBN.

Inline citations should additionally give the relevant page number or range of page numbers. Chapter numbers can also be given if appropriate. When specifying a page number, it is helpful to specify the date and edition used, as pagination can change between editions. If the source is an e-book that does not provide page numbers, the citation should include information that enables readers to locate the source material within the e-book, such as chapter number, paragraph number, or a short quote from the source itself.[2]

Citations for individually authored chapters in books typically include the name of the author, the title of the chapter, the name of the book's editor, name of book, publisher, and year. Do not present the information in a way that implies the editor is the author.

When a book is available online through a site such as Internet Archive, Project Gutenberg, Biodiversity Heritage Library, or Google Books, it may be useful to provide a link to the book so readers can view the source. Use the external link syntax, so that clicking on the book title will take the reader to the book. If a specific page in the book is referenced, it may be specified in the link, for example

  • Rawls, John. [http://books.google.com/books?id=kvpby7HtAe0C&pg=PA18 ''A Theory of Justice'']. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 18.

A link to a specific page in a Google Books should only be added if the book is available for preview; such links will not work if the book is only available in snippet view.[3] Like other variations on citation styles, there is no requirement either to add or remove such links.

Journal articles[уреди]

Citations for journal articles typically include the name of the author(s), the year and sometimes month of publication, the title of the article (within quotation marks), the name of the journal (in italics), the volume number, issue number and page numbers (article numbers in some electronic journals). It is also helpful to provide DOI, PMID and/or other identifiers where available. Because the Wikipedia is not an academic text, it is better to cite the title of the journal in full, rather than with an academic abbreviation.

Inline citations usually also include specific page numbers, as described above for books.

If the article is available online, use external link syntax to link the article title to the relevant Web page, for example: Carr A, Ory D (2006). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030496 Does HIV cause cardiovascular disease?] ''PLoS Medicine'', 3(11):e496.

Newspaper articles[уреди]

Citations for newspaper articles typically include the name of the newspaper (in italics), the date of publication, the byline (author's name) if any, the title of the article (within quotation marks), and the city of publication if not included in the name of the newspaper. Page number(s) are optional.

If the article is available online, link the article's title to the relevant Web address, as described above for journal articles.

Web pages[уреди]

Citations for World Wide Web pages typically include the name of the author(s), the title of the article (within quotation marks), the name of the website, the date of publication (if known), the date you retrieved the page, for example Retrieved 2008-07-15. (this is required if the publication date is unknown). Page number(s) can be added if applicable.

Recordings[уреди]

Citations for sound recordings typically include the name of the composer(s)/script writer(s), name of the performer(s), title of the song or individual track (in quotation marks), title of the album in italics (if applicable), name of the record label, year of release, medium (for example: LP, audio cassette, CD, MP3 file).

Citations for films, TV episodes, or video recordings typically include the name of the director (and the producer if relevant), names of major performers, the title of the episode in quotation marks (if applicable), the title of the film or TV series (in italics), the name of the studio, the year of release, the medium (for example: film, videocassette, DVD).

Where applicable, an inline citation should also give the approximate time in the recording at which the event or point of interest occurs. When doing this, be as precise as possible about the version of the source that you are citing; for example, movies are often released in different editions or "cuts", and timings may differ between them.

Say where you read it [уреди]

Пречица:
WP:SAYWHEREYOUGOTIT

Don't cite a source unless you've seen it for yourself. Where you want to cite John Smith, but you've only read Paul Jones who cites Smith, write it like this (this formatting is just an example):

Викицитати „Smith, John. Name of Book I Haven't Seen, Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 1, cited in Paul Jones (ed.). Name of Encyclopedia I Have Seen. Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 2.“
({{{2}}})

However, if you have read Smith's book yourself, you may cite it directly; there is no need to give credit to any sources, search engines, websites, library catalogs, etc., that led you to that book.

Additional annotation[уреди]

In most cases it is sufficient for a citation footnote simply to identify the source (as described in the sections above); readers can then consult the source to see how it supports the information in the article. Sometimes, however, it is useful to include additional annotation in the footnote, for example to indicate precisely which information the source is supporting (particularly when a single footnote lists more than one source – see Bundling citations and Text-source integrity below). A footnote may also contain a relevant exact quotation from the source, if this may be of interest (this is particularly useful if the source is not easily accessible).

In the case of non-English sources, it may be helpful to quote from the original text and then give an English translation. If the article itself contains a translation of a quote from such a source (without the original), then the original should be included in the footnote. See Non-English sources in the verifiability policy for more information.

Стил навођења извора[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Википедија:Стилски приручник/Навођење извора

Variation in citation methods [уреди]

Пречица:
WP:CITEVAR

As described in various sections of this page, different articles use different citation systems, styles and methods. Points of difference include:

On all of these points, Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.

It is therefore considered helpful:

  • when adding citations, to try to follow the system and style already in use in the article (if any);
  • to improve existing citations by adding missing information (for example, replacing bare URLs with full bibliographic citations);
  • to replace (or supplement) some or all general references with inline citations;
  • to change existing citations to make them follow a consistent system and style, if there is currently inconsistency within the article. If there is disagreement about which style is best, defer to the style used by the first major contributor or start a discussion on the talk page;

Editors should not attempt to change an article's established citation style merely on the grounds of personal preference, or without first seeking consensus for the change. If you think another system or style would be more appropriate for the article than what is already in use, then propose the change on the talk page, and wait for consensus to emerge.

Handling links in citations[уреди]

As noted above under What information to include, it is helpful to include hyperlinks to source material, when available. Here we note some issues concerning these links.

Avoid embedded links[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Wikipedia:Embedded citations

Embedded links to external websites should not be used as a form of inline citation, because they are highly susceptible to linkrot. Wikipedia allowed this in its early years—for example by adding a link after a sentence, like this [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1601858,00.html], which looks like this. [1] This is no longer recommended. Raw links are not recommended in lieu of properly written out citations, even if placed between ref tags, like this <ref>[http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1601858,00.html]</ref>.

Embedded links should never be used to place external links in the body of an article, like this: "Apple, Inc. announced their latest product..."

Convenience links[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Wikipedia:Copyrights#Linking to copyrighted works

A convenience link is a link to a copy of your source on a webpage provided by someone other than the original publisher or author. For example, a copy of a newspaper article no longer available on the newspaper's website may be hosted elsewhere. When offering convenience links, it is important to be reasonably certain that the convenience copy is a true copy of the original, without any changes or inappropriate commentary, and that it does not infringe the original publisher's copyright. Accuracy can be assumed when the hosting website appears reliable. Where several sites host a copy of the material, the site selected as the convenience link should be the one whose general content appears most in line with Wikipedia:Neutral point of view and Wikipedia:Verifiability.

Indicating availability[уреди]

If your source is not available online, it should be available in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unavailable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably available (though not necessarily reliable): providing an ISBN or OCLC number; linking to an established Wikipedia article about the source (the work, its author, or its publisher); or directly quoting the material on the talk page, briefly and in context.

Links to sources[уреди]

For a source available in hardcopy, microform, and/or online, omit, in most cases, which one you read. While it is useful to cite author, title, edition (1st, 2d, etc.), and similar information, it generally is not important to cite a database such as ProQuest, EbscoHost, or JStor (see the list of academic databases and search engines) or to link to such a database requiring a subscription or a third party's login. The basic bibliographic information you provide should be enough to search for the source in any of these databases that have the source. Don't add a URL that has a part of a password embedded in the URL. However, you may provide the DOI, ISBN, or another uniform identifier, if available. If the publisher offers a link to the source or its abstract that does not require a payment or a third party's login for access, you may provide the URL for that link. And if the source only exists online, give the link even if access is restricted.

Preventing and repairing dead links [уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Wikipedia:Link rot
Пречица:
WP:DEADREF

To help prevent dead links, persistent identifiers are available for some sources. Some journal articles have a digital object identifier (DOI); some online newspapers and blogs, and also Wikipedia, have permalinks that are stable. When permanent links aren't available, consider archiving the referenced document when writing the article; on-demand web archiving services such as WebCite (http://www.webcitation.org) are fairly easy to use (see pre-emptive archiving).

Dead links should be repaired or replaced if possible. Do not delete a citation merely because the URL is not working today. Follow these steps when you encounter a dead URL being used as a reliable source to support article content:

  1. Confirm status: First, check the link to confirm that it is dead and not temporarily down. Search the website to see whether it has been rearranged.
  2. Check for web archives: Several archive services exist; add one of these URLs if available:
  3. Remove convenience links: If the material was published on paper (e.g., academic journal, newspaper article, magazine, book), then the URL is not necessary. Simply remove it.
  4. Find a replacement source: Search the web for quoted text or the article title. Consider contacting the website/person that originally published the reference and asking them to republish it. Ask other editors for help finding the reference somewhere else. Find a different source that says essentially the same thing as the reference in question.
  5. Remove hopelessly lost web-only sources: If the source material does not exist offline, and if there is no archived version of the webpage (be sure to wait ~24 months), and if you are unable to find another copy of the material, then the dead citation should be removed and the material it supports should be regarded as unverifiable. If it is material that is specifically required by policy to have an inline citation, then please consider tagging it with {{citation needed}}. It may be helpful to future editors if you move the citation to the talk page with an explanation.

Text-source integrity[уреди]

Пречица:
WP:INTEGRITY

When using inline citations, it is important to maintain text-source integrity. The point of an inline citation is to allow readers and other editors to check that the material is sourced; that point is lost if the citation is not clearly placed. The distance between material and its source is a matter of editorial judgment, but adding text without placing its source clearly can lead to allegations of original research, violations of the sourcing policy, and even plagiarism. Editors should exercise caution when rearranging or inserting material to ensure that text-source relationships are maintained.

When new text is inserted into a paragraph make sure that it is clear what facts the inline citations support. For example

The sun is pretty big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[2]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

Do not add facts into a fully cited paragraph or sentence

NoN

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

without including a source to cover the new information.

YesY

The sun is pretty big,[1] but the moon is not so big.[2] The sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
  3. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

Including too many citations within a sentence may be aesthetically unpleasant:

The sun is the closestШаблон:Dummy ref starШаблон:Dummy ref to the planet Earth,Шаблон:Dummy ref but the moon is even closer.Шаблон:Dummy ref

So consider placing them at a more aesthetically pleasant location:

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth,Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref but the moon is even closer.Шаблон:Dummy ref

or

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth, but the moon is even closer.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref

However this solution brings its own problems:

  • A string of independent citations can also appear aesthetically unpleasant so consider bundling them into one.
  • Identifying which inline citation supports which fact can be more difficult unless additional information is added to the inline citations to explicitly identify what portion of the sentence they cover.
  • Maintenance becomes more difficult. When adding more information to the sentence from yet another source it may be difficult to work out precisely where to place the new citation. If the text is rearranged during a copy edit greater care needs to be taken with rearranging the citations, particularly as the inline citations will be renumbered during their repositioning.

For example if the sentence

The sun is the closestШаблон:Dummy ref starШаблон:Dummy ref to the planet Earth,Шаблон:Dummy ref but the moon is even closer.Шаблон:Dummy ref

is rearranged like this:

The moon is closerШаблон:Dummy ref to planet EarthШаблон:Dummy ref than the nearest star which is called the sun.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref

It will be fairly easy to check that the citations support the information in the rearranged sentence. This rearrangement is more difficult to check:

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth, but the moon is even closer.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref

The moon is closer to planet Earth than the nearest star which is called the sun.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref

Bundling citations[уреди]

Пречица:
WP:CITEBUNDLE
Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Wikipedia:Citation overkill

Sometimes the article is more readable if multiple citations are bundled into a single footnote. For example, when there are multiple sources for a given sentence, and each source applies to the entire sentence, the sources can be placed at the end of the sentence, like this.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref Or they can be bundled into one footnote at the end of the sentence or paragraph, like this.Шаблон:Dummy ref

Bundling is useful if the sources each support a different portion of the preceding text, or if the sources all support the same text. Bundling has several advantages:

  • It helps readers and other editors see at a glance which source supports which point, maintaining text-source integrity;
  • It avoids the visual clutter of multiple clickable footnotes inside a sentence or paragraph;
  • It avoids the confusion of having multiple sources listed separately after sentences, with no indication of which source to check for each part of the text, such as this.Шаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy refШаблон:Dummy ref
  • It makes it less likely that inline citations will be moved inadvertently when text is re-arranged, because the footnote states clearly which source supports which point.

When formatting multiple citations in a footnote, there are several layouts available, as illustrated below. Within a given article, only a single layout should be used.

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1]

Notes


  1. Bullets
  2. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    • For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    • For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
    Line breaks
  3. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

    Paragraph

  4. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

In-text attribution[уреди]

Пречица:
WP:INTEXT
Vista-xmag.png За више информација погледајте чланак Wikipedia:Neutral point of view#Attributing and specifying biased statements

In-text attribution is the attribution inside a sentence of material to its source, in addition to an inline citation after the sentence. In-text attribution should be used with direct speech (a source's words between quotation marks); indirect speech (a source's words without quotation marks); and close paraphrasing. It can also be used when loosely summarizing a source's position in your own words. It avoids inadvertent plagiarism, and helps the reader see where a position is coming from. An inline citation should follow the attribution, usually at the end of the sentence or paragraph in question.

For example:

YesY John Rawls argues that, to reach fair decisions, parties must consider matters as if behind a veil of ignorance.Шаблон:Dummy ref


When using in-text attribution, make sure it doesn't lead to an inadvertent neutrality violation. For example, the following implies parity between the sources, without making clear that the position of Dawkins is the majority view:

NoN Richard Dawkins argues that human beings evolved through natural selection, but John Smith writes that we arrived here in pods from Mars.


Neutrality issues apart, there are other ways in-text attribution can mislead. The sentence below suggests The New York Times has alone made this important discovery:

NoN According to The New York Times, the sun will set in the west this evening.


Simple facts such as this can have inline citations to reliable sources as an aid to the reader, but normally the text itself is best left as a plain statement without in-text attribution:

YesYBy mass, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium.Шаблон:Dummy ref


Dealing with unsourced material[уреди]

Пречица:
WP:NOCITE

If an article is unreferenced, you can tag it with the {{unreferenced}} template, so long as it is not nonsensical or a biography of a living person, in which case request admin assistance.

  • If a claim is doubtful but not harmful, use the {{citation needed}} template, which will add an inline tag, but remember to go back and remove the claim if no source is produced within a reasonable time.
  • If a claim is doubtful and harmful, remove it from the article. You may want to move it to the talk page and ask for a source, unless it is very harmful or absurd, in which case it should not be posted to the talk page either. Use your common sense.
  • All unsourced and poorly sourced contentious material about living persons must be removed from articles and talk pages immediately. See Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons and Wikipedia:Libel.

Citation templates and tools[уреди]

Vista-xmag.png За више информација видети Wikipedia:Citation templates и Wikipedia:Citation tools
For a comparison of citations using templates with citations written freehand, see Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods.

Citation templates can be used to format citations in a consistent way. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged: an article should not be switched between templated and non-templated citations without good reason and consensus – see Variation in citation methods above.

If citation templates are used in an article, the parameters should be accurate. It is inappropriate to set parameters to false values in order that the template will be rendered to the reader as if it were written in some style other than the style normally produced the template (e.g. MLA style).

Metadata[уреди]

Citations may be accompanied by metadata, though it is not mandatory. Most citation templates on Wikipedia use the COinS standard. Metadata such as this allow browser plugins and other automated software to make citation data accessible to the user, for instance by providing links to their library's online copies of the cited works. In articles that format citations manually, metadata may be added manually in a span, according to the COinS specification.

Citation processing tools[уреди]

Programming tools[уреди]

  • Wikicite is a free program that helps editors to create citations for their Wikipedia contributions using citation templates. It is written in Visual Basic .NET, making it suitable only for users with the .NET Framework installed on Windows, or, for other platforms, the Mono alternative framework. Wikicite and its source code is freely available; see the developer's page for further details.
    • Wikicite+ is a program based on the original Wikicite source code. It features extra validation, bug fixes, additional cite templates (such as cite episode) as well as tools for stub sorting and more. It is also available for free under the Apache License 2.0 and is open source.
  • User:Richiez has tools to automatically handle citations for a whole article at a time. Converts occurrences of {{pmid XXXX}} or {{isbn XXXX}} to properly formatted footnote or Harvard-style references. Written in ruby and requires a working installation with basic libraries.
  • pubmed2wiki.xsl an XSL stylesheet transforming the XML output of PubMed to Wikipedia refs.
  • RefTag by Apoc2400 creates a prefilled {{cite book}} template with various options from a Google Books URL. The page provides a bookmarklet for single-click transfer.
  • wikiciter web interface, does google books, pdf files, beta.

Citation export tools[уреди]

You can insert a link beside each citation in Wikipedia, allowing you to export the citation to a reference manager such as EndNote. To install the script just add the following line to Special:MyPage/skin.js (applies to the currently selected skin) or Special:MyPage/common.js (applies to all skins)"

importScript("User:Smith609/endnote.js");

Then save the page and follow the instructions at the top of that page to bypass your browser's cache.

Види још[уреди]

How to cite
Citation problems
Other

Напомене[уреди]

  1. ^ See this July 2007 discussion for more detail on why scrolling reference lists should not be used.
  2. ^ The Шаблон:T template can be used to pinpoint the source material within an e-book, by utilizing one or more of the following parameters:
    • |type= to indicate the e-book device and version; example: |type=Kindle 3
    • |at= to indicate the location; example: |at=Location 4337-42
    • |at= to indicate the chapter, section and/or paragraph; example: |at=chapter 1, section 2, para. 3.
    • |quote= to include a short, relevant quote.
  3. ^ See the October 2010 RfC on linking to Google Books.

Препоручена литература[уреди]


Референце[уреди]