Železnica

Mapa svetske železničke mreže

Železnica je naziv za saobraćajni sistem gde se vozila kreću po stalno postavljenoj metalnoj podlozi - čeličnim šinama. Dve šine zajedno čine kolosek. Za razliku od drumskog prevoza, gde se vozila kreću po pripremljenoj ravnoj površini, šinska vozila su vođena kolosecima kojima se kreću. Šine se obično sastoje od čeličnih šina, ugrađenih na pragove postavljene u tucanik, na kojima se kreće vozni park, obično opremljen metalnim točkovima.

Istorija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Istorija železničkog saobraćaja počela je u praistorijskim vremenima.

Drevni sistemi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Dokazi ukazuju na to da je Diolkos popločana staza bila duga 6 do 8,5 km, koja je prevozila čamce preko Korintske prevlake u Grčkoj od oko 600. godine pne.[1][2][3][4][5] Vozila koja su vukli ljudi i životinje kretala su se u žljebovima u krečnjaku, koji je obezbedio element koloseka, sprečavajući vagone da napuste predviđenu trasu. Diolkos je bio u upotrebi preko 650 godina, najmanje do 1. veka nove ere.[5] Popločane staze su takođe kasnije izgrađene u rimskom Egiptu.[6]

Železnička vozila[uredi | uredi izvor]

Vozna sredstva u sistemu železničkog transporta uglavnom nailaze na manji otpor trenja u odnosu na drumska vozila sa gumenim točkovima, te se putnički i teretni vagoni mogu spajati u duže vozove. Pogon za kretanje obezbeđuju lokomotive,[7] koje ili crpe električnu energiju iz sistema za elektrifikaciju železnice ili proizvode sopstvenu snagu, obično dizel motorima ili, istorijski gledano, parnim mašinama. Većinu koloseka prati sistem signalizacije.

Železnički saobraćaj[uredi | uredi izvor]

Železnički saobraćaj je vrsta transporta gde se prevoz robe ili putnika vrši vagonima koji se kreću po pruzi uz lokomotivsku vuču. Prevoz na javnim prugama organizuje železničko preduzeće, koje obezbeđuje prevoz između železničkih stanica ili korisnika iz privrede. Železnice su siguran sistem kopnenog prevoza u poređenju sa drugim oblicima prevoza.[Nb 1] Železnički prevoz je sposoban za ostvarivanje visokog nivoa putničkog i teretnog iskorišćenja i energetske efikasnosti, ali je često manje fleksibilan i kapitalno intenzivniji od drumskog prevoza, kada se razmatraju niži nivoi saobraćaja.

Osnovne karakteristike železničkog saobraćaja[uredi | uredi izvor]

Osnovne karakteristike železničkog saobraćaja su:

Pozitivne
  • visoka propusna i prevozna sposobnost
  • prevoz nezavisno od klimatskih uslova
  • neposredna veza magistralnih i pratećih koloseka
  • masovnost prevoza
Negativne
  • ograničen manevar
  • velika početna ulaganja[8]

Razvoj železnica[uredi | uredi izvor]

Rudarska kolica iz 16. veka

Prvi vagončići na prugama upotrebljavali su se još u 16. veku u Nemačkoj i Engleskoj za prevoz iskopane rude. Vagončiće su vukli konji. U gradovima konji su vukli vagone železnicom i tako prevozili nižu klasu.[9]

Engleski inženjer Džordž Stivenson izumeo je prvu parnu lokomotivu. Mogla je brzinom pešaka vući nekoliko rudničkih vagona. Gradnjom udobnijih vagona, počeo je teretni i putnički razvoj železnica.

Prva javna železnička veza uspostavljena je 1825. između engleskih gradova Stoktona i Darlingtona.

Posle spore parne železnice nastale su dizelske, pa moderne električne železnice.

Železnica se sastoji od infrastrukture (šine), lokomotive, vagoni (putnički i ili teretni) i drugih pomoćnih objekata.

Vidi još[uredi | uredi izvor]

Napomene[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ According to [Norman Bradbury (novembar 2002). Face the facts on transport safety (PDF). Railwatch (Izveštaj). Arhivirano iz originala (PDF) na datum 11. 10. 2010. ], railways are the safest on both a per-mile and per-hour basis, whereas air transport is safe only on a per-mile basis.

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Verdelis, Nikolaos: "Le diolkos de L'Isthme", Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Vol. 81 (1957), pp. 526–529 (526)
  2. ^ Cook, R. M. (1979). „Archaic Greek Trade: Three Conjectures”. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 99: 152—155. JSTOR 630641. S2CID 161378605. doi:10.2307/630641. 
  3. ^ Drijvers, Jan Willem (1992). „Strabo VIII 2,1 (C335): ΠΟΡΘΜΕΙΑ and the "Diolkos"”. Mnemosyne. 45 (1): 75—78. JSTOR 4432110. 
  4. ^ Raepsaet, G. & Tolley, M.: "Le Diolkos de l'Isthme à Corinthe: son tracé, son fonctionnement", Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Vol. 117 (1993), pp. 233–261 (256)
  5. ^ a b Lewis, M. J. T. (2001). „Railways in the Greek and Roman world” (PDF). Ur.: Guy, A.; Rees, J. Early Railways. A Selection of Papers from the First International Early Railways Conference. str. 8—19. Arhivirano iz originala (PDF) na datum 21. 7. 2011. 
  6. ^ Fraser, P. M. (decembar 1961). „The ΔΙΟΛΚΟΣ of Alexandria”. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 47: 134—138. JSTOR 3855873. doi:10.2307/3855873. 
  7. ^ Fowler, George Little (1906). Locomotive dictionary; an illustrated vocabulary of terms which designate American Railroad locomotives, their parts, attachments and details of construction, with definitions and illustrations of typical British locomotive practice; five thousand one hundred and forty-eight illustrations (PDF). New York: The Railroad Gazette. 
  8. ^ Transportne sposobnosti - kapacitet transporta
  9. ^ „Zašto i kako smo konje zamenili automobilima?”. Startit. Pristupljeno 17. 01. 2019. 

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Spoljašnje veze[uredi | uredi izvor]