Evangelizam

S Vikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Ne poistovećivati sa evangelizacijom.

Evangelizam, evanđeosko hrišćanstvo, ili evangelički protestantizam je svetski trans-konfesionalni pokret unutar protestantskog hrišćanstva koji održava verovanje da se suština Jevanđelja sastoji od doktrine spasenja samo po blagodati, isključivo kroz veru u Isusovo spasenje.[1][2][3][4] Evangeličari veruju u centralnu ulogu obrađenja ili iskustvo „ponovnog rođenja“ u primanju spasenja, u autoritet Biblije kao Božjeg otkrivenja čovečanstvu i širenje hrišćanske poruke. Pokret je dugo bio prisutan u Anglosferi pre nego što se proširio dalje u 19, 20. i početkom 21. veka.

Njegovo poreklo se obično vodi do 1738. godine, pri čemu razni teološki tokovi doprinose njegovom osnivanju, uključujući pijetizam, puritanizam, kvekerizam, prezbiterijanizam i moravijanizam (posebno njegovog biskupa Nikole Zinzendorfa i njegova zajednica u Hernhutu).[5][6][7][8] Prevashodno, Džon Vesli i drugi rani metodisti bili su u korenu podsticanja ovog novog pokreta tokom Prvog velikog buđenja. Danas se evangelisti nalaze u mnogim protestantskim granama, kao i u raznim denominacijama koje nisu podvedene pod određenu granu.[9] Među vođama i glavnim ličnostima evangeličkog protestantskog pokreta bili su Džordž Foks, Džon Vesli, Džordž Vajtfild, Džonatan Edvards, Bili Grejam, Bil Brajt, Harold Okenga, Džon Stot i Martin Lojd-Džons.[5][8][10] Pokret je dobio veliki zamah tokom 18. i 19. veka Velikim buđenjima u Velikoj Britaniji i Sjedinjenim Državama.

Reformacija[uredi | uredi izvor]

U doba reformacije, pod njim se podrazumevalo prihvatanje augzburškog ispovedanja vere, za razliku od pripadanja katolicizmu ili reformisanim crkvama.[11] Takvo značenje pojma je i dalje na snazi u Evropi i javlja se u službenim nazivima mnogih luteranskih crkava. U 18. veku, kao evangelisti su bili poznati oni koji su bili naklonjeni protestantskoj engleskoj crkvi, kao i oni među nekonformistima koji su ove podržavali. Engleski evangelisti su naglašavali značaj Svetog pisma, potrebu za očuvanjem vere, potrebu za visokim ličnim moralom i zastupničko iskupljenje.

Amerika i Engleska[uredi | uredi izvor]

U Americi 19. veka, pojam evanđeoski se odnosio na one crkve koje su zastupale ideje preporoda, probuđenja (revivalizam). Smatralo se da ove crkve imaju mnogo zajedničkog i njihove vođe su se nadale da će jedan evanđeoski ujedinjeni front pomoći da Amerika postane stvarno hrišćanska zemlja.

U Engleskoj su 1846. protivnici anglo-rimokatoličkog pokreta ostvarili međusobnu saradnju na nivou Evangelističkog saveza. Savez je potvrdio ispovedanje vere u devet tačaka, gde se pominjalo i nadahnuće Svetim pismom, zastupničko iskuplenje, zatim Sveta Trojica, kao i grehopad i izopačenost čovečanstva. Jedinstvo koje se razvijalo među evangelističkim crkvama početkom veka počelo je da se osipa pod udarcima darvinizma, kriticizma i industrijalizacije.

Pokreti[uredi | uredi izvor]

Različite crkve su različito reagovale na ove izazove i klasični evangelistički pokret se rascepio na liberale, konzervativce i tzv. pokret društvenog jevanđelja. Četrdesetih godina 20. veka počeo je da se rađa nov evanđeoski pokret i to u krilu naprednijeg dela američkog fundamentalizma, koji je s vremenom postao otvoreniji prema svetu i crkvenom predanju. Sazrevanjem fundamentalističke teologije, konzervativne crkve u Americi počele su da se razvijaju i ta tendencija je i danas evidentna.

Evanđeoski pokret u lokalnim crkvama dao je svoj doprinos formiranju i jačanju vankongregacionalnih institucija. Već 1970. evanđeoski pokret je postao glavna snaga američkog protestantizma. Nove evanđeoske crkve su postale najbrže rastuća verska zajednica u SAD.

Vidi još[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Stanley 2013, str. 11. "As a transnational and trans-denominational movement, evangelicalism had from the outset encompassed considerable and often problematic diversity, but this diversity had been held in check by the commonalities evangelicals on either side of the North Atlantic shared - most notably a clear consensus about the essential content of the gospel and a shared sense of the priority of awakening those who inhabited a broadly Christian environment to the urgent necessity of a conscious individual decision to turn to Christ in repentance and faith. Evangelicalism had maintained an ambiguous relationship with the structures of Christendom, whether those structures took the institutional form of a legal union between church and state, as in most of the United Kingdom, or the more elusive character that obtained in the United States, where the sharp constitutional separation between church and state masked an underlying set of shared assumptions about the Christian (and indeed Protestant) identity of the nation. Evangelicals had differed over whether the moral imperative of national recognition of godly religion should also imply the national recognition of a particular church, but all had been agreed that being born or baptized within the boundaries of Christendom did not in itself make one a Christian."
  2. ^ Sproul, R. C. (2016). What Is Reformed Theology?: Understanding the Basics. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. str. 36. ISBN 978-0-8010-1846-6. »The Reformers called themselves evangelicals because they believed the doctrine of justification by faith alone is central and essential to [the gospel]. Since the biblical word for gospel is evangel, they used the term evangelical to assert their conviction that sola fide is [the gospel].« 
  3. ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 1978. 
  4. ^ Operation World 
  5. ^ a b Christian Scholar's Review, Volume 27 (na jeziku: engleski). Hope College. 1997. str. 205. »This was especially true of proto-evangelical movements like the Quakers, organized as the Religious Society of Friends by George Fox in 1668 as a group of Christians who rejected clerical authority and taught that the Holy Spirit guided« 
  6. ^ Quaker History, Volumes 94-95 (na jeziku: engleski). Friends Historical Association. 2005. str. 46. »Emma Malone, active in the evangelical Quaker community in Cleveland, co-founded (with her husband) the Christian Workers Training School. This school helped to train the leadership of evangelical Quakers« 
  7. ^ Brian Stiller, Evangelicals Around the World: A Global Handbook for the 21st Century, Thomas Nelson, USA, 2015, pp. 28, 90.
  8. ^ a b Angell, Stephen Ward; Dandelion, Pink (19. 4. 2018). The Cambridge Companion to Quakerism (na jeziku: engleski). Cambridge University Press. str. 293. ISBN 978-1-107-13660-1. 
  9. ^ „Christianity report” (PDF). Arhivirano iz originala (PDF) na datum 2013-08-05. Pristupljeno 2014-12-30. 
  10. ^ Manual of Faith and Practice of Central Yearly Meeting of Friends (na jeziku: engleski). Central Yearly Meeting of Friends. 2018. str. 2. 
  11. ^ Mohler 2011, str. 103–104.

Literatura[uredi | uredi izvor]

  • Balmer, Randall. Evangelicalism in America (Baylor University Press, 2016). xvi, 199 pp.
  • Balmer, Randall Herbert (2002), Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-22409-7, Pristupljeno 25. 10. 2011 .
  • Bauder, Kevin (2011), „Fundamentalism”, Ur.: Naselli, Andrew; Hansen, Collin, Four Views on the Spectrum of Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, ISBN 978-0-310-55581-0 
  • Bebbington, David W (1993), Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s, London: Routledge 
  • Chesnut, R. Andrew (1997), Born Again in Brazil: The Pentecostal Boom and the Pathogens of Poverty, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 9780813524061 .
  • Dayton, Donald W. (1991), „Some Doubts about the Usefulness of the Category 'Evangelical'”, Ur.: Dayton, Donald W.; Johnston, Robert K., The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 1-57233-158-5 
  • Ellingsen, Mark (1991), „Lutheranism”, Ur.: Dayton, Donald W.; Johnston, Robert K., The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 1-57233-158-5 
  • Himmelstein, Jerome L. (1990), To The Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism, University of California Press .
  • Longfield, Bradley J. (2013), Presbyterians and American Culture: A History, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press 
  • Lovelace, Richard F. (2007), The American Pietism of Cotton Mather: Origins of American Evangelicalism, Wipf & Stock, ISBN 9781556353925 
  • Marsden, George M (1991), Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-0539-6 
  • Martin, William (1996), With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America, New York: Broadway Books, ISBN 0-7679-2257-3 
  • Mohler, Albert (2011), „Confessional Evangelicalism”, Ur.: Naselli, Andrew; Hansen, Collin, Four Views on the Spectrum of Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, ISBN 978-0-310-55581-0 
  • Noll, Mark A. (2004), The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield and the Wesleys, Inter-Varsity, ISBN 1-84474-001-3 
  • Ohlmann, Eric H. (1991), „Baptists and Evangelicals”, Ur.: Dayton, Donald W.; Johnston, Robert K., The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 1-57233-158-5 
  • Olson, Roger (2011), „Postconservative Evangelicalism”, Ur.: Naselli, Andrew; Hansen, Collin, Four Views on the Spectrum of Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, ISBN 978-0-310-55581-0 
  • Puzynin, Andrey P. (2011). The Tradition of the Gospel Christians: A Study of Their Identity and Theology during the Russian, Soviet, and Post-Soviet Periods. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781630876883. 
  • Randall, Kelvin (2005), Evangelicals etcetera: conflict and conviction in the Church of England 
  • Ranger, Terence O, ur. (2008), Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa, Oxford University Press .
  • Reimer, Sam (2003). Evangelicals and the Continental Divide: The Conservative Protestant Subculture in Canada and the United StatesNeophodna slobodna registracija. McGill-Queen's Press. 
  • Shantz, Douglas H. (2013), An Introduction to German Pietism: Protestant Renewal at the Dawn of Modern Europe, JHU, ISBN 9781421408309 
  • Stanley, Brian (2013). The Global Diffusion of Evangelicalism: The Age of Billy Graham and John Stott. IVP Academic. ISBN 978-0-8308-2585-1. 
  • Sutton, Matthew Avery. American Apocalypse: A History of Modern Evangelicalism (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2014). 480 pp. online review
  • Sweeney, Douglas A. (2005). The American Evangelical Story: A History of the MovementNeophodna slobodna registracija. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1-58558-382-9. 
  • Tomlinson, Dave (2007). The Post-Evangelical. ISBN 978-0-310-25385-3. 
  • Trueman, Carl (2011), The Real Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, Moody Publishers 
  • Witvliet, John D. (2010), „Worship”, Ur.: McDermott, Gerald, The Oxford Handbook of Evangelical Theology, Oxford University Press, str. 310—324, ISBN 9780195369441 
  • Wolffe, John (2007). The Expansion of Evangelicalism: The Age of Wilberforce, More, Chalmers and Finney. A History of Evangelicalism. 2. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2582-0. 
  • Worthen, Molly (2014). Apostles of Reason: The Crisis of Authority in American Evangelicalism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-989646-2. 
  • Balmer, Randall Herbert (2004), Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism (excerpt and text search) (2nd izd.), ISBN 9780664224097 ; online.
  • ——— (2010), The Making of Evangelicalism: From Revivalism to Politics and Beyond, ISBN 978-1-60258-243-9 .
  • ——— (2000), Blessed Assurance: A History of Evangelicalism in America 
  • Bastian, Jean-Pierre (1994), Le Protestantisme en Amérique latine: une approche sio-historique [Protestantism in Latin America: a sio‐historical approach], Histoire et société (na jeziku: francuski) (27), Genève: Labor et Fides, ISBN 2-8309-0684-5 ; alternative ISBN on back cover, 2-8309-0687-X; 324 pp.
  • Beale, David O (1986), In Pursuit of Purity: American Fundamentalism Since 1850, Greenville, SC: Bob Jones University: Unusual, ISBN 0-89084-350-3 .
  • Bebbington, D. W. (1989), Evangelicals in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s, London: Unwin .
  • Carpenter, Joel A. (1980), „Fundamentalist Institutions and the Rise of Evangelical Protestantism, 1929–1942”, Church History, 49 (1): 62—75, JSTOR 3164640, doi:10.2307/3164640 .
  • ——— (1999), Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512907-5 .
  • Case, Jay Riley (2012). An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals and World Christianity, 1812-1920. Oxford UP. ISBN 9780199772322. 
  • Chapman, Mark B., "American Evangelical Attitudes Toward Catholicism: Post-World War II to Vatican II," U.S. Catholic Historian, 33#1 (Winter 2015), 25–54.
  • Freston, Paul (2004), Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa and Latin America, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-60429-X .
  • Hindmarsh, Bruce (2005), The Evangelical Conversion Narrative: Spiritual Autobiography in Early Modern England, Oxford: Oxford University Press .
  • Kidd, Thomas S (2007), The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America, Yale University Press .
  • Knox, Ronald (1950), Enthusiasm: a Chapter in the History of Religion, with Special Reference to the XVII and XVIII Centuries, Oxford, Eng: Oxford University Press, str. viii , 622 pp.
  • Luhrmann, Tanya (2012) When God Talks Back-Understanding the American Evangelical Relationship with God, Knopf
  • ——— (1987), Reforming Fundamentalism: Fuller Seminary and the New Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans .
  • Noll, Mark A (1992), A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, str. 311—89, ISBN 0-8028-0651-1 .
  • Noll, Mark A; Bebbington, David W; Rawlyk, George A, ur. (1994), Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles and Beyond, 1700–1990 .
  • Pierard, Richard V. (1979), „The Quest For the Historical Evangelicalism: A Bibliographical Excursus”, Fides et Historia, 11 (2), str. 60—72 .
  • Price, Robert M. (1986), „Neo-Evangelicals and Scripture: A Forgotten Period of Ferment”, Christian Scholars Review, 15 (4), str. 315—30 .
  • Rawlyk, George A; Noll, Mark A, ur. (1993), Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States .
  • Schafer, Axel R (2011), Countercultural Conservatives: American Evangelicalism From the Postwar Revival to the New Christian Right, U. of Wisconsin Press , 225 pp; covers evangelical politics from the 1940s to the 1990s that examines how a diverse, politically pluralistic movement became, largely, the Christian Right.
  • Smith, Timothy L (1957), Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War .
  • Stackhouse, John G (1993), Canadian Evangelicalism in the Twentieth Century 
  • Sutton, Matthew Avery. American Apocalypse: A history of modern evangelicalism (2014)
  • Utzinger, J. Michael (2006), Yet Saints Their Watch Are Keeping: Fundamentalists, Modernists, and the Development of Evangelical Ecclesiology, 1887–1937, Macon: Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-86554-902-8 .
  • Ward, W. R. (2006), Early Evangelicalism: A Global Intellectual History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521158125 .
  • Wigger, John H; Hatch, Nathan O, ur. (2001), Methodism and the Shaping of American Culture .
  • Wright, Bradley (21. 3. 2013), What, exactly, is Evangelical Christianity?, series on Evangelical Christianity in America, Patheos (Black, White and Gray blog) .
  • Anderson, Gerald H, ur. (1998), Biographical dictionary of Christian missions, Simon & Schuster Macmillan .
  • Bainbridge, William F (1882), Around the World Tour of Christian Missions: A Universal Survey , 583 pp.
  • Barrett, David, ur. (1982), World Christian Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press .
  • Brown, Candy Gunther, ur. (2011), Global Pentecostal and Charismatic Healing (essays by scholars on different countries), Oxford UP , 400 pp.
  • Etherington, Norman, ur. (2008), Missions and Empire, Oxford History of the British Empire Companion .
  • Gailey, Charles R; Culbertson, Howard (2007), Discovering Missions, Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press .
  • Glover, Robert H; Kane, J Herbert (1960), The Progress of World-Wide Missions, Harper & Row .
  • Hutchison, William R (1987), Errand to the World: American Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions .
  • Jenkins, Philip (2011), The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (3rd izd.), Oxford UP .
  • Kane, J. Herbert (1982), A Concise History of the Christian World Mission, Baker .
  • Koschorke, Klaus (2007), A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450–1990: A Documentary Sourcebook (Google Books), et al., Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 9780802828897 
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, (1938–45) (detailed scholarly history) , 7 volumes.
  • Moreau, A. Scott (2000), Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, et al, Baker .
  • Neill, Stephen (1986), A History of Christian Missions, Penguin .
  • Newcomb, Harvey (1860), A Cyclopedia of Missions: Containing a Comprehensive View of Missionary Operations Throughout the World with Geographical Descriptions, and Accounts of the Social, Moral, and Religious Condition of the People (Google Books) , 792 pp.
  • Pocock, Michael; van Rheenen, Gailyn; McConnell, Douglas (2005), The Changing Face of World Missions: Engaging Contemporary Issues and Trends ; 391 pp.
  • Shenk, Wilbert R, ur. (2004), North American Foreign Missions, 1810–1914: Theology, Theory, and Policy . 349 pp; important essays by scholars.
  • Tejirian, Eleanor H; Simon, Reeva Spector, ur. (2012), Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion: Two Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East, Columbia University Press , 280 pp; focus on the 19th and 20th centuries.
  • Tucker, Ruth (2004), From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya .
  • ——— (1988), Guardians of the Great Commission .

Spoljašnje veze[uredi | uredi izvor]