Istorija Perua

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Istorija Perua obuhvata četiri milenijuma, protežući se kroz nekoliko faza kulturnog razvoja ovog planinskog i jezerskog regiona. Peru je bio dom civilizacije Norte Čiko, najstarije civilizacije u Americi i jedne od šest najstarijih na svetu, te Carstva Inka, najveće i najnaprednije države u predkolumbijskoj Americi. Osvojilo ga je Špansko carstvo u 16. veku, koje je uspostavilo vicekralja koji je bio nadležan za većinu njihovih južnoameričkih domena. Država je proglasila nezavisnost od Španije 1821. godine, ali se učvrstila tek nakon bitke kod Ajakuča, tri godine kasnije.

Prekolumbijske kulture[уреди]

Alati za lov od pre više od 11.000 godina pronađeni su u pećinama Pačakamac, Telarmačaj, Hunin i Laurikoča.[1] Neke od najstarijih civilizacija pojavile su se oko 6000. godine pne u primorskim provincijama Čilka i Parakas, i u visinskoj provinciji Kaležon de Huajlas. Tokom sledećih tri hiljade godina stanovnici su prešli sa nomadskog načina života na obrađivanje zemlje, kao što dokazuju nalazišta poput Jiskajrumoka, Kotoša i Huaka Priete. Kultivacija biljaka poput kukuruza i pamuka (Gossypium barbadense) je započela, kao i pripitomljavanje životinja poput divljih predaka lame, alpake i zamorca, kao što se vidi na reljefnim slikama Kamelida sa reljefom iz oko 6000 pne, u pećinama Molepunko u Kalaliju. Stanovnici su praktikovali predenje i pletenje pamuka i vune, pravljenje košara i keramike.

Kako su ovi stanovnici postali sedentarni, poljoprivreda im je omogućila da grade naselja i nova društva nastaju duž obale i u Andskim planinama. Prvi poznati grad u Americi bio je Karal, smešten u dolini Supe, 200 km severno od Lime. Sagrađen je oko 2500. godine pne.[2]

Ono što je ostalo od civilizacije, koja se naziva Norte Čiko, je oko 30 piramidalnih građevina izgrađenih u vidu opadajućih terasa koje se završavaju ravnim krovom; neke su visine do 20 metara. Karal je jedno od svetskih središta uspona civilizacije.[2]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ the were, Lexus Origen de las puta Civilizaciones Andinas. p. 41.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Charles C. Mann, "Oldest Civilization in the Americas Revealed", Science, 7 January 2005, accessed 1 Nov 2010. Quote: "Almost 5,000 years ago, ancient Peruvians built monumental temples and pyramids in dry valleys near the coast, showing that urban society in the Americas is as old as the most ancient civilizations of the Old World."

Literatura[уреди]

  • Dobyns, Henry F. and Paul L. Doughty, Peru: A cultural history. New York : Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • Higgins, James. A history of Peruvian literature (Francis Cairns, 1987)
  • Werlich, David P. Peru: a short history (Southern Illinois Univ Pr, 1978)

Osvajanje[уреди]

  • Cieza de León, Pedro de. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Ed. and trans., Alexandra Parma Cook and David Noble Cook. Durham: Duke University Press 1998.
  • Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1970.
  • Lockhart, James. The Men of Cajamarca; a social and biographical study of the first conquerors of Peru, Austin, Published for the Institute of Latin American Studies by the University of Texas Press [1972]
  • Yupanqui, Titu Cusi. An Inca Account of the Conquest of Peru. Trans. Ralph Bauer. Boulder: University Press of Colorado 2005.

Kolonijalna era[уреди]

  • Andrien, Kenneth J. Crisis and Decline: The Viceroyalty of Peru in the Seventeenth Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1985.
  • Andrien, Kenneth J. Andean Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture, and Consciousness under Spanish Rule, 1532–1825. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2001.
  • Bakewell, Peter J. Silver and Entrepreneurship in Seventeenth-Century Potosí: The Life and times of Antonio López de Quiroga. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1988.
  • Baker, Geoffrey. Imposing Harmony: Music and Society in Colonial Cuzco. Durham: Duke University Press 2008.
  • Bowser, Frederick P. The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524–1650. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1973.
  • Bradley, Peter T. Society, Economy, and Defence in Seventeenth-Century Peru: The Administration of the Count of Alba de Liste (1655–61). Liverpool: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Liverpool 1992.
  • Bradley, Peter T. The Lure of Peru: Maritime Intrusion into the South Sea, 1598–1701. New York: St Martin's Press 1989.
  • Burns, Kathryn. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru (1999), on the crucial role that convents played in the Andean economy as lenders and landlords; nuns exercised economic & spiritual power.
  • Cahill, David. From Rebellion to Independence in the Andes: Soundings from Southern Peru, 1750–1830. Amsterdam: Aksant 2002.
  • Chambers, Sarah C. From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780–1854. University Park: Penn State Press 1999.
  • Charnay, Paul. Indian Society in the Valley of Lima, Peru, 1532–1824. Blue Ridge Summit: University Press of America 2001.
  • Dean, Carolyn. Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco, Peru. Durham: Duke University Press 1999.
  • Fisher, John. Bourbon Peru, 1750–1824. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press 2003.
  • Fisher, John R., Allan J. Kuethe, and Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press 2003.
  • Garrett, David T. Shadows of Empire: The Indian Nobility of Cusco, 1750–1825. New York: Cambridge University Press 2005.
  • Griffiths, Nicholas. The Cross and the Serpent: Religious Repression and Resurgence in Colonial Peru. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1996.
  • Hyland, Sabine. The Jesuit and the Incas: The Extraordinary Life of Padre Blas Valera, S.J. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press 2003.
  • Jacobsen, Nils. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780–1930 (1996)
  • Lamana, Gonzalo. Domination Without Dominance: Inca-Spanish Relations in Early Colonial Peru. Durham: Duke University Press 2008.
  • Lockhart, James. Spanish Peru, 1532–1560: A Social History (1968), a detailed portrait of the social and economic lives of the first generation of Spanish settlers in Peru & the development of Spanish colonial society in the generation after conquest
  • MacCormack, Sabine. Religion in the Andes: Vision and Imagination in Colonial Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1991.
  • Mangan, Jane E. Trading Roles: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Urban Economy in Colonial Potosí. Durham: Duke University Press 2005.
  • Marks, Patricia. Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru. University Park: Penn State Press 2007.
  • Means, Philip Ainsworth. Fall of the Inca Empire and the Spanish Rule in Peru: 1530–1780 (1933)
  • Miller, Robert Ryal, ed. Chronicle of Colonial Lima: The Diary of Joseph and Francisco Mugaburu, 1640–1697. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1975.
  • Mills, Kenneth. Idolatry and Its Enemies: Colonial Andean Religion and Extirpation, 1640–1750. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1997.
  • Osorio, Alejandra B. Inventing Lima: Baroque Modernity in Peru's South Sea Metropolis. New York: Palgrave 2008.
  • Poma de Ayala, Felipe Guaman, The First New Chronicle and Good Government: On the History of the World and the Incas up to 1615. Ed. and trans. Roland Hamilton. Austin: University of Texas Press 2009.
  • Porras Barrenechea, Raúl (2016). El nombre del Perú (The Name of Peru). Lima: Lápix editores. ISBN 9786124722110. 
  • Premo, Bianca. Children of the Father King: Youth, Authority, and Legal Minority in Colonial Lima. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 2005.
  • Ramírez, Susan Elizabeth. The World Turned Upside Down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1996.
  • Serulnikov, Sergio. Subverting Colonial Authority: Challenges to Spanish Rule in Eighteenth-Century Southern Andes. Durham: Duke University Press 2003.
  • Spalding, Karen. Huarochirí: An Andean Society Under Inca and Spanish Rule. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1984.
  • Stavig, Ward. The World of Tupac Amaru: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru (1999), an ethnohistory that examines the lives of Andean Indians, including diet, marriage customs, labor classifications, taxation, and the administration of justice, in the eighteenth century.
  • Tandeter, Enrique. Coercion and Market: Silver Mining in Colonial Potosí, 1692–1826. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1993.
  • TePaske, John J., ed. and trans. Discourse and Political Reflections on the Kingdom of Peru by Jorge Juan and Antonio Ulloa. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1978.
  • Thomson, Sinclair. We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 2003.
  • Van Deusen, Nancy E. Between the Sacred and the Worldly: the Institutional and Cultural Practice of Recogimiento in Colonial Lima. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2001.
  • Varón Gabai, Rafael. Francisco Pizarro and His Brothers: The Illusion of Power in Sixteenth-Century Peru. Trans. by Javier Flores Espinosa. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1997.
  • Walker, Charles F. Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru, and Its Long AftermathStay (2008)
  • Wightman, Ann M. Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570–1720. Durham: Duke University Press 1990.

Era nakon nezavisnosti[уреди]

  • Blanchard, Peter. Slavery and Abolition in Early Republican Peru. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources 1992.
  • Bonilla, Heraclio. "The War of the Pacific and the national and colonial problem in Peru". Past & Present 81#.1 (1978): 92–118.
  • Cueto, Marcos. The return of epidemics: health and society in Peru during the twentieth century (Ashgate, 2001)
  • Hünefeldt, Christine. Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor Among Lima's Slaves, 1800–1854. trans. by Alexandra Minna Stern. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1994.
  • Kenney, Charles Dennison. Fujimori's coup and the breakdown of democracy in Latin America (Univ of Notre Dame Press, 2004)
  • Larson, Brooke. Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810–1910. New York: Cambridge University Press 2004.
  • Méndez G., Cecilia. The plebeian republic : the Huanta rebellion and the making of the Peruvian state, 1820–1850. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.
  • Miller, Rory. Region and Class in Modern Peruvian History (1987)
  • Pike, Frederick B. The Modern History of Peru (1967)
  • Starn, Orin. "Maoism in the Andes: The Communist Party of Peru-Shining Path and the refusal of history". Journal of Latin American Studies 27#2 (1995): 399–421.
  • Walker, Charles F. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780–1840. Durham: Duke University Press 1999.

Ekonomska i radnička istorija[уреди]

  • De Secada, C. Alexander G. "Arms, guano, and shipping: the WR Grace interests in Peru, 1865–1885". Business History Review 59#4 (1985): 597–621.
  • Drake, Paul. "International Crises and Popular Movements in Latin America: Chile and Peru from the Great Depression to the Cold War", in Latin America in the 1940s, David Rock, ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1994, 109–140.
  • Gootenberg, Paul, Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
  • Gootenberg, Paul, Andean cocaine: the making of a global drug. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.
  • Greenhill, Robert G., and Rory M. Miller. "The Peruvian Government and the nitrate trade, 1873–1879". Journal of Latin American Studies 5#1 (1973): 107–131.
  • Keith, Robert G. Conquest and Agrarian Change: The Emergence of the Hacienda System on the Peruvian Coast (1979)
  • Peloso, Vincent C. Peasants on Plantations: Subaltern Strategies of Labor and Resistance in the Pisco Valley, Peru (Duke University Press, 1999)
  • Purser, Michael, and W. F. C. Purser. Metal-mining in Peru, past and present (1971)
  • Quiroz, Alfonso W. Domestic and foreign finance in modern Peru, 1850–1950: financing visions of development (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993)
  • Stewart, Watt. Henry Meiggs: Yankee Pizarro (Duke University Press, 1946), on 1870s

Primarni izvori[уреди]

Istoriografija[уреди]

  • Bonilla, Heraclio. "The New Profile of Peruvian History", Latin American Research Review Vol. 16, No. 3 (1981), pp. 210–224 in JSTOR
  • Fryer, Darcy R. "A Taste of Spanish America: Reading Suggestions for Teachers of Colonial North America", Common-Place 15#2 (2015)* Heilman, Jaymie Patricia. "From the Inca to the Bourbons: New writings on pre-colonial and colonial Peru", Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History Volume 12, Number 3, Winter 2011 doi:10.1353/cch.2011.0030
  • Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest (Oxford University Press, 2003)
  • Thurner, Mark. History's Peru: The Poetics of Colonial and Postcolonial Historiography (University Press of Florida; 2010) 302 pages; a study of Peruvian historiography from Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539–1616) to Jorge Basadre (1903–80). full text online

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]