Paratiroidni hormon

Из Википедије, слободне енциклопедије
Paratiroidni hormon
PDB prikaz baziran na 1bwx.
Dostupne strukture
1BWX, 1ET1, 1FVY, 1HPH, 1HPY, 1HTH, 1ZWA, 1ZWB, 1ZWD, 1ZWE, 1ZWF, 1ZWG, 2L1X, 3C4M
Identifikatori
Simboli PTH; PTH1
Vanjski ID OMIM168450 MGI97799 HomoloGene266 GeneCards: PTH Gene
Pregled RNK izražavanja
PBB GE PTH 206977 at tn.png
podaci
Ortolozi
Vrsta Čovek Miš
Entrez 5741 19226
Ensembl ENSG00000152266 ENSMUSG00000059077
UniProt P01270 Q9Z0L6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000315.2 NM_020623.2
RefSeq (protein) NP_000306.1 NP_065648.1
Lokacija (UCSC) Chr 11:
13.51 - 13.52 Mb
Chr 7:
120.53 - 120.53 Mb
PubMed pretraga [1] [2]

Paratiroidni hormon (PTH, parathormon, paratirin) luče paratiroidne ćelije paraštitaste žlezde kao polipeptid koji sadrži 84 aminokiseline. On deluje tako što povišava koncentraciju kalcijuma (Ca2+) u krvi, dok kalcitonin (hormon koji proizvode parafolikularne ćelije (C ćelije) štitaste žlezde) snižava koncentracije kalcijuma.

PTH deluje tako što povišava koncentraciju kalcijuma u krivi. On se vezuje za receptor paratiroidnog hormona 1 (koji je prisutan u visokim nivoima u kostima i bubrezima) i za receptor paratiroidnog hormona 2 (koji je visoko izražen u centralnom nervnom sistemu, pankreasu, testisima, i posteljici).[1] PTH poluživot je aproksimativno 4 minuta.[2] On ima molekularnu masu od 9,4 kDa.[3]

Heliksna dimerna struktura hPTH-(1-34)[4]

Struktura[уреди]

hPTH-(1-34) se kristalizuje kao neznatno povijeni, dugački heliksni dimer. Analiza je pokazala da je heliksna konformacija hPTH-(1-34) verovatno bioaktivna konformacija.[5] The N-terminal fragment 1-34 of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been crystallized and the structure has been refined to 0.9 Å resolution.

Stimulatori[уреди]

  • Sniženi nivo serumskog [Ca2+].
  • Blago povišenje novoa serumskog [Mg2+].
  • Povišenje nivoa serumskog fosfata (povećanje koncentracije fosfata uzrokuje formiranje kalcijum fosfata, čime se redukuje stimulacija Ca-senzitivnih receptora (CaSr) koji ne reaguju na kalcijum fosfat, te dolazi do povišenja PTH nivoa)

Inhibitori[уреди]

Reference[уреди]

  1. Fiziologija na MCG 5/5ch6/s5ch6_11
  2. Bieglmayer C, Prager G, Niederle B (2002). „Kinetic analyses of parathyroid hormone clearance as measured by three rapid immunoassays during parathyroidectomy”. Clin. Chem. 48 (10): 1731—8. PMID 12324490. 
  3. Prahalad AK, Hickey RJ, Huang J; et al. (2006). „Serum proteome profiles identifies parathyroid hormone physiologic response”. Proteomics. 6 (12): 3482—93. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500929. PMID 16705755. 
  4. PDB 1ETE; Savvides SN, Boone T, Andrew Karplus P (2000). „Flt3 ligand structure and unexpected commonalities of helical bundles and cystine knots”. Nat Struct Biol. 7 (6): 486—491. doi:10.1038/75896. PMID 10881197.  ; rendered via PyMOL.
  5. Jin L, Briggs SL, Chandrasekhar S, Chirgadze NY, Clawson DK, Schevitz RW, Smiley DL, Tashjian AH, Zhang F (2000). „Crystal structure of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 at 0.9-A resolution”. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (35): 27238—44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001134200. PMID 10837469. 
  6. Costanzo, Linda S. (2007). BRS Physiology. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. стр. 260. ISBN 978-0-7817-7311-9. 

Literatura[уреди]

  • Drüeke TB, Massy ZA (2003). „Advanced oxidation protein products, parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia”. Blood Purif. 20 (5): 494—7. doi:10.1159/000065203. PMID 12207101. 
  • Parfitt AM (2003). „Parathyroid hormone and periosteal bone expansion”. J. Bone Miner. Res. 17 (10): 1741—3. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.10.1741. PMID 12369776. 
  • Martin TJ (2004). „Does bone resorption inhibition affect the anabolic response to parathyroid hormone?”. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 15 (2): 49—50. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2004.01.002. PMID 15080150. 
  • Keutmann HT, Sauer MM, Hendy GN; et al. (1979). „Complete amino acid sequence of human parathyroid hormone”. Biochemistry. 17 (26): 5723—9. doi:10.1021/bi00619a019. PMID 728431. 
  • Keutmann HT, Niall HD, O'Riordan JL, Potts JT (1975). „A reinvestigation of the amino-terminal sequence of human parathyroid hormone”. Biochemistry. 14 (9): 1842—7. doi:10.1021/bi00680a006. PMID 1125201. 
  • Parkinson DB, Thakker RV (1993). „A donor splice site mutation in the parathyroid hormone gene is associated with autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism”. Nat. Genet. 1 (2): 149—52. doi:10.1038/ng0592-149. PMID 1302009. 
  • Handt O, Reis A, Schmidtke J (1993). „Ectopic transcription of the parathyroid hormone gene in lymphocytes, lymphoblastoid cells and tumour tissue”. J. Endocrinol. 135 (2): 249—56. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1350249. PMID 1474331. 
  • Tonoki H, Narahara K, Matsumoto T, Niikawa N (1991). „Regional mapping of the parathyroid hormone gene (PTH) by cytogenetic and molecular studies”. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 56 (2): 103—4. doi:10.1159/000133059. PMID 1672845. 
  • Marx UC, Adermann K, Bayer P; et al. (1998). „Structure-activity relation of NH2-terminal human parathyroid hormone fragments.”. J Biol Chem. 273 (8): 4308—16. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.8.4308. PMID 9468478. 
  • Arnold A, Horst SA, Gardella TJ; et al. (1990). „Mutation of the signal peptide-encoding region of the preproparathyroid hormone gene in familial isolated hypoparathyroidism”. J. Clin. Invest. 86 (4): 1084—7. doi:10.1172/JCI114811. PMC 296835слободно за читање. PMID 2212001. 
  • Nussbaum SR, Gaz RD, Arnold A (1990). „Hypercalcemia and ectopic secretion of parathyroid hormone by an ovarian carcinoma with rearrangement of the gene for parathyroid hormone”. N. Engl. J. Med. 323 (19): 1324—8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199011083231907. PMID 2215618. 
  • Ahn TG, Antonarakis SE, Kronenberg HM; et al. (1986). „Familial isolated hypoparathyroidism: a molecular genetic analysis of 8 families with 23 affected persons”. Medicine (Baltimore). 65 (2): 73—81. PMID 3005800. 
  • Tregear GW, van Rietschoten J, Greene E; et al. (1975). „Solid-phase synthesis of the biologically active N-terminal 1 - 34 peptide of human parathyroid hormone”. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 355 (4): 415—21. PMID 4474131. 
  • Niall HD, Sauer RT, Jacobs JW; et al. (1974). „The Amino-Acid Sequence of the Amino-Terminal 37 Residues of Human Parathyroid Hormone”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 (2): 384—8. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.2.384. PMC 388010слободно за читање. PMID 4521809. 
  • Andreatta RH, Hartmann A, Jöhl A; et al. (1973). „[Synthesis of sequence 1-34 of human parathyroid hormone]”. Helv. Chim. Acta. 56 (1): 470—3. doi:10.1002/hlca.19730560139. PMID 4721748. 
  • Jacobs JW, Kemper B, Niall HD; et al. (1974). „Structural analysis of human proparathyroid hormone by a new microsequencing approach”. Nature. 249 (453): 155—7. doi:10.1038/249155a0. PMID 4833516. 
  • Vasicek TJ, McDevitt BE, Freeman MW; et al. (1983). „Nucleotide sequence of the human parathyroid hormone gene”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80 (8): 2127—31. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.8.2127. PMC 393770слободно за читање. PMID 6220408. 
  • Mayer H, Breyel E, Bostock C, Schmidtke J (1983). „Assignment of the human parathyroid hormone gene to chromosome 11”. Hum. Genet. 64 (3): 283—5. doi:10.1007/BF00279412. PMID 6885073. 
  • Hendy GN, Kronenberg HM, Potts JT, Rich A (1982). „Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNAs encoding human preproparathyroid hormone”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78 (12): 7365—9. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.12.7365. PMC 349267слободно за читање. PMID 6950381. 
  • Hendy GN, Bennett HP, Gibbs BF; et al. (1995). „Proparathyroid hormone is preferentially cleaved to parathyroid hormone by the prohormone convertase furin. A mass spectrometric study”. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (16): 9517—25. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.16.9517. PMID 7721880. 
  • Costanzo, Linda S. (2007). BRS Physiology. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. стр. 260. ISBN 978-0-7817-7311-9.