Noć veštica

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Izrezbareni Džek-o'-Lantern

Helovin (engl. Halloween, IPA[ˌhæləʊˈiːn])[1][a] svetkovina je koja se obilježava 31. oktobra, noć uoči praznika Svih svetih prema zapadnohrišćanskoj tradiciji. Predstavlja početak trodnevnog obilježavanja Allhallowtide,[5] vrijeme u liturgijskoj godini posvjećeno sjećanju na mrtve, uključujući svece, mučenike i sve vjernike.[6][7]

Vjeruje se da većina tradicija vezanih za Helovin potiče od keltske svetkovine žetve koji možda ima paganske korijene, prvenstveno u gelskoj svetkovini Samajn, i da je ova svetkovina hristijanizovana kao Helovin.[8][3][9][10][11][12] Neki akademici, međutim, podržavaju stav da je Helovin nastao samostalno kao isključivo hrišćanski praznik.[8][13][14][15][16]

Najčešće aktivnosti koje obeležavaju ovaj praznik su: kostimirane zabave, pravljenje lampe od tikve, gledanje horor filmova, čitanje strašnih priča.[17] Deca idu od vrata do vrata, traže slatkiše i uzvikuju „trick or treat“ („smicalica ili poslastica“, u slobodnom prevodu „dajte nam slatkiše ili ćemo inače biti primorani da uradimo nešto nevaljalo“).[18] Irski imigranti su verziju ove tradicije preneli u Severnu Ameriku u 19. veku. Noć veštica se proslavlja u SAD, Irskoj, Kanadi, Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, Švedskoj, Porto Riku, Japanu, Novom Zelandu i u nekim delovima Australije.

Istorija[uredi]

Poreklo ovog praznika datira još od antičke keltske svetkovine „Samhain“ posvećene istoimenom paganskom božanstvu. Kelti, koji su živeli na prostorima današnje Irske, slavili su svoju Novu godinu 1. novembra. Noć pred Novu godinu slavili su „Samhain“.[19] Verovali su da se tada duhovi mrtvih vraćaju na zemlju uzrokujući probleme i uništavajući useve. Keltski paganski sveštenici gradili su ogromne lomače gde su se ljudi okupljali kako bi spalili useve i životinje kao žrtve keltskim božanstvima. U toku proslave nosili su kostime, uglavnom od životinjskih glava i kože.

Legenda o Džek-o'-Lanternu[uredi]

Glavni članak: Džek-o'-Lantern

Običaj dubljenja bundeva zasniva se na irskoj legendi o kovaču Džeku, poznatom po njegovoj domišljatosti, ali i škrtosti. Jedna od priča govori kako je prevario Đavola tako što mu je ponudio dušu u zamenu za piće i nakon što se Đavo pretvorio u novčić kako bi platio piće, Džek ga je brzo stavio u džep u kojem je bio krst, zbog kojeg se Đavo više nije mogao vratiti u svoj oblik. Tek nakon što je Džeku obećao da neće tražiti njegovu dušu još deset godina, Džek ga je izvadio iz džepa. Nakon deset godina opet je prevario Đavola tako što ga je zamolio da mu doda jabuku sa stabla, ali je na kori stabla brzo nacrtao krst, tako da ga Đavo ponovno nije mogao dohvatiti. Kada je Džek umro, nije bio primljen zbog svog grešnog života u Raj, a na vratima Pakla dočekao ga je Đavo i poslao natrag u mrak, a da ga se reši dao mu je komad uglja. Džek je u džepu imao repu, koju je izdubio i stavio u nju ugalj i od tada Džek, koji nikada nije pronašao put kući luta mrakom noseći izdubljenu repu u ruci. Tako je Džek O'Lantern (Džek Fenjer) postao simbol duše koja je prokleta i koja luta između svetova.[20]

Vidi još[uredi]

Napomene[uredi]

  1. Halloween je skraćeni oblik All Hallows' Evening (Noć Svih svetih).[1] Poznat je još i kao Allhalloween,[2] All Hallows' Eve[3] ili All Saints' Eve.[4]

Izvori[uredi]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Thomas Thomson, Charles Annandale (1896). A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms, 1706, to the present time. Blackie. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2011. »Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity.« 
  2. Palmer, Abram Smythe (1882). Folk-etymology. Johnson Reprint. str. 6. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2011. »Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.« 
  4. „NEDCO Producers' Guide”. 31-33. Northeast Dairy Cooperative Federation. 1973. »Originally celebrated as the night before All Saints' Day, Christians chose November first to honor their many saints. The night before was called All Saints' Eve or hallowed eve meaning holy evening.« 
  5. „Tudor Hallowtide”. National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. 2012. Arhivirano iz originala na datum 6. 10. 2014. »Hallowtide covers the three days – 31 October (All-Hallows Eve or Hallowe'en), 1 November (All Saints) and 2 November (All Souls).« 
  6. Hughes, Rebekkah (29. 10. 2014). „Happy Hallowe'en Surrey!” (PDF). The Stag. University of Surrey. str. 1. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2015. »Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed Christians.« 
  7. Don't Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned (Davis), HarperCollins, page 231
  8. 8,0 8,1 „BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve”. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Pristupljeno 1. 11. 2011. »It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church. ...All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself. The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. ...However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain...« 
  9. Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical. ISBN 9780582301436. Pristupljeno 14. 12. 2015. »Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day.« 
  10. Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. str. 66. ISBN 9780252029318. Pristupljeno 14. 12. 2015. »The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.« 
  11. Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2011. »Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.« 
  12. Austrian information. 1965. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2011. »The feasts of Hallowe'en, or All Hallows Eve and the devotions to the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day are both mixtures of old Celtic, Druid and other pagan customs intertwined with Christian practice.« 
  13. Mosteller, Angie (11. 10. 2012). „Is Halloween Pagan in Origin?”. Crosswalk. Pristupljeno 14. 12. 2015. »Early in church history, Christians began to celebrate the "saints" (heroes of the faith) and by the 7th century, All Saints' Day was celebrated annually throughout the Christian world - Orthodox churches celebrated on the Sunday after Pentecost, and Roman Catholic churches celebrated on May 13. Without a doubt, the origin of All Saints' Day and its Eve (Halloween) was entirely Christian. ...So why do many scholars draw the connection between Halloween and Samhain? In the nineteenth century, cultural anthropologist Sir James Frazer studied the practices of Northern Celtic people on Hallowmas (a term that has come to describe the three day period of October 31st, Halloween, November 1st, All Saints' Day, and November 2nd, All Souls' Day). He asserted that the traditions of Hallowmas were rooted in Samhain, and he claimed that the ancient pagan festival had been a day to honor the dead. Though Christianity probably brought the focus on the dead to Samhain, Frazer claimed the reverse.« 
  14. Bolinius, Erich (31. 10. 2006), Halloween (na jeziku: German), FDP Emden, »Die lückenhaften religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken müssen: Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische Samhain zurück, sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/ Allerseelen.« 
  15. Döring, Dr. Volkskundler Alois (2011). „Süßes, Saures - olle Kamellen? Ist Halloween schon wieder out?” (na jeziku: German). Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Arhivirano iz originala na datum 14. 6. 2011. Pristupljeno 12. 11. 2015. »Dr. Alois Döring ist wissenschaftlicher Referent für Volkskunde beim LVR-Institut für Landeskunde und Regionalgeschichte Bonn. Er schrieb zahlreiche Bücher über Bräuche im Rheinland, darunter das Nachschlagewerk "Rheinische Bräuche durch das Jahr". Darin widerspricht Döring der These, Halloween sei ursprünglich ein keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest. Vielmehr stamme Halloween von den britischen Inseln, der Begriff leite sich ab von "All Hallows eve", Abend vor Allerheiligen. Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als "amerikanischer" Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.« 
  16. Thompson, Augustine. „The Catholic Origins of Halloween”. ucatholic.com. Pristupljeno 19. 9. 2016. »We’ve all heard the allegations: Halloween is a pagan rite dating back to some pre-Christian festival among the Celtic Druids that escaped church suppression. Even today modern pagans and witches continue to celebrate this ancient festival. If you let your kids go trick-or-treating, they will be worshiping the devil and pagan gods. Nothing could be further from the truth. The origins of Halloween are, in fact, very Christian and rather American. Halloween falls on October 31 because of a pope, and its observances are the result of medieval Catholic piety.« 
  17. „Pravo lice Noći veštica“, jw.org. Pristupljeno 3. decembra 2013.
  18. „Najsimpatičniji kostimi poznatih i njihove dece za Noć veštica“, Aleksandra Grujić, Wannabe Magazine, 24. oktobar 2013. Pristupljeno 3. decembra 2013.
  19. „Zašto se slavi Noć veštica“, Jasna Petrović, Politika, 23. oktobar 2013. Pristupljeno 3. decembra 2013.
  20. „Noć veštica - slatkiši ili magija“, Dubravka Savić, Večernje novosti, 27. oktobar 2012. Pristupljeno 3. decembra 2013.

Spoljašnje veze[uredi]