Martin Hajdeger

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Martin Hajdeger
Heidegger 4 (1960) cropped.jpg
Martin Hajdeger (1960)
Datum rođenja(1889-09-26)26. septembar 1889.
Mesto rođenjaMeskirh
Nemačko carstvo
Datum smrti26. maj 1976.(1976-05-26) (86 god.)
Mesto smrtiFrajburg
Zapadna Nemačka
Škola filozofijeKontinentalna filozofija
fenomenologija
hermeneutika
ontološka hermeneutika[1]
hermeneutska fenomenologija (rano)[2]
transcendentalno hermeneutska fenomenologija (kasnije)[3]
egzistencijalizam
egzistencijalna fenomenologija[4]
Ideje
Uticaji od

Potpis

Martin Hajdeger (nem. Martin Heidegger;[11][12][13][11] 26. septembar 188926. maj 1976) je bio nemački filozof. Posebno značajan je Hajdegerov doprinos tumačenju Ničeovog dela. Hajdeger je odlučujuće uticao na formiranje mnogih filozofskih pravaca postmoderne, ali i izazivao kontroverze svojim vezama sa nacistima tokom ranih tridesetih godina. Uz Huserla Hajdeger se smatra za najuticajnijeg filozofa kontinentalne tradicije.

U Hajdegerovom fundamentalnom tekstu Biće i vreme (1927), „Dazajn“ je predstavljen kao termin za određeni tip bića koju ljudi poseduju.[14] Dazajn je prevedeno kao „biti tamo“. Hajdeger veruje da Dazajn već ima „predontološko“ i neapstraktno razumevanje koje oblikuje način na koji živi. Ovaj način postojanja on naziva „biti u svetu“. Komentatori su primetili da su Dazajn i „biti u svetu“ jedinični koncepti u kontrastu sa gledištem na „subjekt/objekat“ racionalističke filozofije još od vremena Renea Dekarta. Hajdeger koristi analizu Dazajna da pristupi pitanju značenja bića, koje Hajdegerski učenjak Majkl Viler opisuje kao „zabrinutost zbog onoga što čini biće razumnim kao bića“.[15]

Hajdegerov kasniji rad obuhvata kritiku stanovišta, uobičajenog u zapadnoj tradiciji, da je cela priroda „stalni rezervat“, kao da je deo industrijskog inventara.[16][17]

Hajdeger je bio član i podržavao nacističku stranku.[18][19] Postoje kontroverze oko odnosa između njegove filozofije i njegovog nacizma.[20][21]

Život[uredi | uredi izvor]

Kuća u Meskirhu, u kojoj je Hajdeger odrastao
Grob Martina Hajdegera

Rođen je u porodici zvonara seoske crkve u Meskirhu (Baden) 26. septembar 1889. godine.[22] Počeo je da studira teologiju ali se ipak opredelio za filozofiju, koju je studirao u Konstanci i Frajburgu.

Veliki uspeh knjige „Biće i vreme“ omogućio je Hajdegeru da postane profesor u Frajburgu. Predavao je filozofiju sve do penzionisanja 1945. Penzionisale su ga francuske okupacione vlasti, zbog poznatog rektorskog govora u vreme dolaska nacista na vlast, u kome je slavio "Istorijski poziv Nemačke...". Ostatak života proveo je povučeno u planinskoj kući na padinama Crne šume, ispod Švarcvalda. Hajdeger se smatra jednim od najuticajnijih filozofa 20. veka. Posebno je značajan njegov uticaj u kontinentalnoj filozofskoj tradiciji (posebno na Žan Pola Sartra) a takođe je uticao na istaknutog rimokatoličkog teologa Karla Ranera.

Hajdeger je umro u Frajburgu in Bresgau 26. maja 1976.

Kontroverze oko nacionalsocijalizma[uredi | uredi izvor]

Posle dolaska Hitlera na vlast 1933. godine Hajdeger se učlanjuje u nacionalsocijalističku partiju i biva izabran za rektora Univerziteta u Frajburgu. Te godine drži i poznati rektorski govor u kome govori o pozivu nemačkih univerziteta u novom vremenu. Njegova karijera se međutim zbog neslaganja sa nacistima završava već 1934. godine. Ostaje učlanjen u nacionalsocijalističku partiju sve do završetka rata. Zbog svega ovoga francuske okupacione vlasti mu brane da predaje na univerzitetu sve do 1951. godine kada nastavlja i zadržava se na redovnim studijama sve do 1967.

Radovi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Najznačajnija dela Martina Hajdegera su :

  • Biće i vreme,
  • Šta je metafizika,
  • Šta je filozofija,
  • Kant i problemi metafizike,
  • O biti razloga,
  • O biti istine,
  • O humanizmu,
  • Identitet i razlika,
  • Niče,
  • Šumske staze...

Vidi još[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Martin Heidegger, Ontology: The Hermeneutics of Facticity, Indiana University Press, 2008, p. 92.
  2. ^ Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Phenomenology World-Wide: Foundations — Expanding Dynamics — Life-Engagements A Guide for Research and Study, Springer, 2014, p. 246.
  3. ^ Wheeler, Michael (12. 10. 2011). „Martin Heidegger – 3.1 The Turn and the Contributions to Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Приступљено 2013-05-22. »In a 1947 piece, in which Heidegger distances his views from Sartre's existentialism, he links the turn to his own failure to produce the missing divisions of Being and Time [i.e., "Time and Being"]. ... At root Heidegger's later philosophy shares the deep concerns of Being and Time, in that it is driven by the same preoccupation with Being and our relationship with it that propelled the earlier work. ... [T]he later Heidegger does seem to think that his earlier focus on Dasein bears the stain of a subjectivity that ultimately blocks the path to an understanding of Being. This is not to say that the later thinking turns away altogether from the project of transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology. The project of illuminating the a priori conditions on the basis of which entities show up as intelligible to us is still at the heart of things.« 
  4. ^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1998): "Phenomenological movement: 4. Existential phenomenology.
  5. ^ Włodzimierz Julian Korab-Karpowicz. „Heidegger, Martin - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy”. www.iep.utm.edu. 
  6. ^ "The opposition of world and earth is a strife." (Heidegger (1971), Poetry, Language, Thought, translation and introduction by Albert Hofstadter, p. 47: translation corrected by Hubert Dreyfus; original German: "Das Gegeneinander von Welt und Erde ist ein Streit.") The two interconnected dimensions of intelligibility (revealing and concealing) are called "world" and "earth" by Heidegger, the latter informing and sustaining the former (Heidegger's Aesthetics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)).
  7. ^ Zupko, Jack (28. 12. 2017). Zalta, Edward N., ур. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University — преко Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  8. ^ Heidegger's Hidden Sources: East-Asian Influences on His Work by Reinhard May, 1996.
  9. ^ Brian Elliott, Phenomenology and Imagination in Husserl and Heidegger, Routledge, 2004, p. 132.
  10. ^ Giorgio Agamben, The Open: Man and Animal, trans. Kevin Attell (Stanford University Press, 2004), p. 39.
  11. ^ а б Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd изд.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 
  12. ^ "Heidegger". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  13. ^ „Martin - Französisch-Übersetzung - Langenscheidt Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch” (на језику: немачки и француски). Langenscheidt. Приступљено 22. 10. 2018. 
  14. ^ Velasquez, M., Philosophy: A Text with Readings (Boston: Cengage Learning, 2012), p. 193.
  15. ^ Wheeler, Michael (2020). „Martin Heidegger: 2.2.1 The Question”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Приступљено 28. 1. 2021. 
  16. ^ John Richardson, Heidegger, Routledge, 2012.
  17. ^ Heidegger, Martin. Poetry, Language, Thought. (New York: Harper Modern Perennial Classics, 2001.), p. 8.
  18. ^ Farin, Ingo (2016). Reading Heidegger's "Black notebooks 1931--1941. Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262034012. 
  19. ^ Press, The MIT. „Reading Heidegger's Black Notebooks 1931–1941”. The MIT Press. 
  20. ^ Sharpe, Matthew (2018-10-02). „On Reading Heidegger—After the "Heidegger Case"?”. Critical Horizons. 19 (4): 334—360. ISSN 1440-9917. S2CID 149832726. doi:10.1080/14409917.2018.1520514. 
  21. ^ Fried, Gregory (2020). Confronting Heidegger: a Critical Dialogue on Politics and Philosophy. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 9781786611918. 
  22. ^ Sheehan, Thomas (31. 12. 2011). Heidegger: The Man and the Thinker. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412815376 — преко Google Books. 

Literatura[uredi | uredi izvor]

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Spoljašnje veze[uredi | uredi izvor]