Muskarinski acetilholinski receptor M2

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Muskarinski acetilholinski receptor M2‎‎
Identifikatori
Simboli CHRM2; FLJ43243; HM2; MGC120006; MGC120007
Vanjski ID OMIM118493 MGI88397 HomoloGene20190 IUPHAR: M2 GeneCards: CHRM2 Gene
Ortolozi
Vrsta Čovek Miš
Entrez 1129 243764
Ensembl ENSG00000181072 ENSMUSG00000045613
UniProt P08172 Q05CZ8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000739.2 NM_203491.3
RefSeq (protein) NP_000730.1 NP_987076.2
Lokacija (UCSC) Chr 7:
136.55 - 136.71 Mb
Chr 6:
36.34 - 36.48 Mb
PubMed pretraga [1] [2]

Muskarinski acetilholinski receptor M2 (holinergički receptor, muskarinski 2) je muskarinski acetilholinski receptor.

Funkcija[уреди]

Srce[уреди]

M2 muskarinski receptori su locirani u srcu, gde usporavaju brzinu srca do normalnog sinusnog ritma nakon stimulatornog dejstva simpatetičkog nervnog sistema, putem usporavanja brzine depolarizacije. Oni takođe redukuju kontraktilne sile atrijalnog srčanog mišića, i umanjuju provodnu brzinu atrioventrikularnog čvora (AV čvor). Oni nemaju efekta na kontrakcione sile ventrikularnog mišića.

IQ[уреди]

Jedna danska porodična studija iz 2006 je utvrdila da postoji "veoma značajna veze" između CHRM2 gena i inteligencije. Ova studija je koristila uzorak od 667 osoba iz 304 porodice.[1] Slična veza je nezavisno nađena u studiji blizanaca i porodica u Minesoti.[2] Međutim, kasniji pokušaji iz 2009. da se potvrde ove tvrdnje je bili neuspešni.[3]

Mehanizam[уреди]

M2 muskarinski receptori deluju putem Gi tipa receptora, koji uzrokuju smanjenje cAMP koncentracije u ćeliji, generalno dovodeći do inhibitornih efekata.

Oni takođe moduliraju muskarinske kalijumove kanale.[4][5] U srcu, oni doprinose smanjenju brzine rada srca.

Gen[уреди]

Muskarinski acetilholinski receptor M2 je kodiran genom CHRM2.[6] Višestruke alternativno splajsovane transkriptne varijante ovog gene au nađene.[6]

Ligandi[уреди]

Nekoliko visoko selektivnih M2 agonista je trenutno dostupno. Brojni neselektivni agonisti i antagonisti su poznati.

Agonisti[уреди]

  • Betanehol (neselektivni muskarinski agonist)
  • (2S,2'R,3'S,5'R)-1-methil-2-(2-methil-1,3-oksatiolan-5-il)pirolidin 3-sulfokside metil jodid (selektivni parcijalni M2 agonist)[7]

Antagonisti[уреди]

  • Dimetinden - N,N-Dimetil-3-[(1S)-1-(2-piridinil)etil]-1H-inden-2-etanamin, CAS# 121367-05-3, mešoviti M2 / histamin H1 antagonist
  • Otenzepad - 11-([2-[(Dietilamino)metil]-1-piperidinil]acetil)-5,11-dihidro-6H-pirido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-on, CAS# 102394-31-0
  • AQRA-741 - 11-([4-[4-(Dietilamino)butil]-1-piperidinil]acetil)-5,11-dihidro-6H-pirido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-on, CAS# 123548-16-3
  • AFDX-384 (mešoviti M2/M4 antagonist) - N-[2-[2-[(Dipropilamino)metil]-1-piperidinil]etil]-5,6-dihidro-6-okso-11H-pirido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-11-karboksamid, CAS# 118290-27-0

Vidi još[уреди]

Reference[уреди]

  1. ^ Gosso MF; van Belzen M; de Geus EJ; et al. (2006). „Association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence in a sample of 304 Dutch families”. Genes, Brain and Behavior. 5 (8 pages=577–584). PMID 17081262. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00211.x. 
  2. ^ Dick DM; Aliev F; Kramer J; et al. (2007). „Association of CHRM2 with IQ: converging evidence for a gene influencing intelligence”. Behav. Genet. 37 (2): 265—272. PMID 17160701. doi:10.1007/s10519-006-9131-2. 
  3. ^ Lind PA; Luciano M; Horan MA; et al. (2009). „No association between Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptor 2 (CHRM2) genetic variation and cognitive abilities in three independent samples”. Behav. Genet. 39 (5): 513—23. PMID 19418213. doi:10.1007/s10519-009-9274-z. 
  4. ^ Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07145-4. 
  5. ^ Boron, W. F & Boulpaep, E. L. (2005). Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. стр. 387. ISBN 978-1-4160-2328-9. 
  6. 6,0 6,1 „Entrez Gene: CHRM2 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2”. 
  7. ^ Scapecchi S, Matucci R, Bellucci C, Buccioni M, Dei S, Guandalini L, Martelli C, Manetti D, Martini E, Marucci G, Nesi M, Romanelli MN, Teodori E, Gualtieri F (2006). „Highly chiral muscarinic ligands: the discovery of (2S,2'R,3'S,5'R)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyrrolidine 3-sulfoxide methyl iodide, a potent, functionally selective, M2 partial agonist”. J. Med. Chem. 49 (6): 1925—31. PMID 16539379. doi:10.1021/jm0510878. 

Literatura[уреди]

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  • Kunapuli P, Onorato JJ, Hosey MM, Benovic JL (1994). „Expression, purification, and characterization of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK5.”. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (2): 1099—105. PMID 8288567. 
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  • Kostenis E, Conklin BR, Wess J (1997). „Molecular basis of receptor/G protein coupling selectivity studied by coexpression of wild type and mutant m2 muscarinic receptors with mutant G alpha(q) subunits.”. Biochemistry. 36 (6): 1487—95. PMID 9063897. doi:10.1021/bi962554d. 
  • Smiley JF, Levey AI, Mesulam MM (1998). „Infracortical interstitial cells concurrently expressing m2-muscarinic receptors, acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase in the human and monkey cerebral cortex.”. Neuroscience. 84 (3): 755—69. PMID 9579781. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00524-1. 
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  • Sato KZ; Fujii T; Watanabe Y; et al. (1999). „Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell lines.”. Neurosci. Lett. 266 (1): 17—20. PMID 10336173. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00259-1. 
  • Retondaro FC, Dos Santos Costa PC, Pedrosa RC, Kurtenbach E (1999). „Presence of antibodies against the third intracellular loop of the m2 muscarinic receptor in the sera of chronic chagasic patients.”. FASEB J. 13 (14): 2015—20. PMID 10544184. 
  • Waid DK, Chell M, El-Fakahany EE (2000). „M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptor subtypes couple to activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.”. Pharmacology. 61 (1): 37—42. PMID 10895079. doi:10.1159/000028378. 
  • Obara K; Arai K; Miyajima N; et al. (2000). „Expression of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA in primary culture of human prostate stromal cells.”. Urol. Res. 28 (3): 196—200. PMID 10929429. doi:10.1007/s002400000113. 
  • Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07145-4. 
  • Boron, W. F & Boulpaep, E. L. (2005). Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. стр. 387. ISBN 978-1-4160-2328-9. 

Spoljašnje veze[уреди]